Alternating Systemic Chemotherapy and Intra-Arterial Melphalan (IAM) Chemotherapy in Children With Intra-Ocular Retinoblastoma

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Brief Title

Alternating Systemic Chemotherapy and Intra-Arterial Melphalan (IAM) Chemotherapy in Children With Intra-Ocular Retinoblastoma

Official Title

A Pilot Study Evaluating the Safety of Alternating Systemic Chemotherapy and Intra-Arterial Melphalan Chemotherapy in Children With Newly Diagnosed Advanced Intra-Ocular Retinoblastoma

Brief Summary

      The purpose of this study is to test the safety of the treatment combination of alternating
      standard chemotherapy and another (melphalan) chemotherapy at different interval schedules.
      Researchers want to find out what effects, good and/or bad, the treatment combination has on
      the patients and their retinoblastoma.

Study Phase

Phase 1

Study Type


Primary Outcome

Adverse Event evaluation for newly diagnosed advanced retinoblastoma treated with melphalan therapy and systemic chemotherapy

Secondary Outcome

 Response rates after IAM combined with systemic CEV in patients with newly diagnosed advanced intraocular retinoblastoma


Advanced Intra-Ocular Retinoblastoma



Study Arms / Comparison Groups

 Cohort 1
Description:  Patients will receive alternating treatments beginning with systemic chemotherapy then followed by intra-arterial (IA) therapy.
Bilateral retinoblastoma patients will be in Cohort 1.
For bilateral Bilateral retinoblastoma patients where one eye is stage A or B and the other eye is C, D, or E, only the higher stage eye (C, D, E) will be treated with IA chemotherapy unless the stage A or B eye is not amenable or has failed local therapy.


* Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by National Clinical Trials Identifier (NCT ID) in Medline.

Recruitment Information

Recruitment Status


Estimated Enrollment


Start Date

July 23, 2014

Completion Date

May 25, 2019

Primary Completion Date

May 25, 2019

Eligibility Criteria

        Inclusion Criteria:

          -  Age greater than or equal to 3 months up to 18 years.

          -  Intraocular retinoblastoma not previously treated with systemic chemotherapy,
             radiation therapy, or IA therapy. Local retinal therapy such as laser photocoagulation
             and cryotherapy will be permitted.

          -  Unilateral or bilateral retinoblastoma (RB) patients are eligible

          -  Patients will be registered on study based on the local exam under anesthesia (EUA)
             done for diagnostic purposes prior to study entry. The EUA done at study entry should
             be done within 14 days prior to study entry

          -  Patients may have had enucleation of one eye, as long as the remaining eye meets the
             eligibility criteria

          -  Involved eye(s) must meet the definition for International Classification of

          -  For unilateral retinoblastoma (see Appendix 1 for International Classification of

               1. Group A eye that has failed local therapy

               2. Group B eye that has failed local therapy

               3. Group C eye that has failed local therapy

               4. Group D eye

               5. Group E eye that is not buphthalmic, is not planned for enucleation after first
                  cycle of chemotherapy, and is in a child less than 1 year of age

          -  For bilateral retinoblastoma (see Appendix 1 for International Classification of

               1. Group A and Group A eyes that have failed local therapy

               2. Group A and Group B eyes that have failed local therapy

               3. Group A and Group C eyes

               4. Group A and Group D eyes

               5. Group A and Group E eyes in which the Group E eye is not planned for enucleation
                  after first cycle of chemotherapy

               6. Group B and Group B eyes that have failed local therapy

               7. Group B and Group C eyes

               8. Group B and Group D eyes

               9. Group B and Group E eyes in which the Group E eye is not planned for enucleation
                  after first cycle of chemotherapy

              10. Group C and Group C eyes

              11. Group C and Group D eyes

              12. Group C and Group E eyes even if early enucleation is planned for the Group E

              13. Group D and Group D eyes

              14. Group D and Group E eyes even if early enucleation is planned for the Group E

              15. Group E and Group E eyes if at least one eye is not planned for enucleation.

          -  Adequate Renal Function defined as: creatinine clearance or radioisotope Glomerular
             filtration rate (GFR) ³ 70 milliliter (mL)/min/1.73 m2 OR a serum creatinine based on
             age and gender derived from the Schwartz formula for estimating GFR (Schwartz et al.
             J. Peds, 106:522, 1985) utilizing child length and stature data published by the
             Center for Disease Control (CDC).

          -  Adequate hematological function defined as:

               1. Absolute Neutrophil Count > 1000/microliter

               2. Platelet Count > 100,000/microliter

          -  Adequate liver function defined as total bilirubin should be less than or equal to 1.5
             x upper limit of normal (ULN) for age and serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase
             (SGOT) / aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase

             / alanine aminotransferase (ALT) < 5 x upper limit of normal (ULN) for age

          -  Adequate coagulation system as defined as an international normalized ratio (INR) of
             less than 1.4 and a partial thromboplastin time (PTT) of less than 34

          -  Women and men of child-bearing potential must agree to use adequate contraception such
             as hormonal or barrier method of birth control or abstinence prior to study entry and
             for the duration of study participation. Should the subject or the subject's partner
             become pregnant or suspect pregnancy while on protocol therapy, the treating physician
             must be informed immediately.

        Exclusion Criteria:

          -  Any evidence of extraocular retinoblastoma clinically or by magnetic resonance imaging
             (MRI) of brain and orbits with and without gadolinium. MRI may be done within 21 days
             prior to study entry.

             1. Evidence of systemic metastases on bilateral bone marrow, lumbar puncture, bone
             scan (or Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan), and/or any
             other additional tests done at study entry.

          -  Patients who have previously been treated with chemotherapy (with the exception of
             second inclusion criteria) radiation therapy, or intra-arterial therapy.

          -  Eyes with tumors that are amenable to local therapy with laser or cryotherapy without
             threat to vision

          -  Any technical factor that would prohibit use of catheterization of the ophthalmic
             artery (e.g., small for age infant, untreatable allergy to contrast).

          -  Abnormal cerebral vasculature noted on MR angiography that would increase the risk of
             the procedure, including but not limited to an incomplete Circle of Willis. Other
             abnormalities that are less severe than an incomplete Circle of Willis will be
             reviewed by the study chair in consultation with a neuro-interventional radiologist.

          -  Any serious ongoing condition, such as an untreated infection or organ dysfunction.

          -  Patients receiving any medications or substances that are inhibitors or inducers of
             CYP450 enzyme(s) are ineligible.

          -  Pregnant women are excluded from this study due to potential for teratogenic or
             abortifacient effects of therapy. Because there is an unknown but potential risk for
             adverse events in nursing infants secondary to treatment of the mother breastfeeding
             should be discontinued upon start of protocol therapy.




3 Months - 18 Years

Accepts Healthy Volunteers



Anuradha Banerjee, MD, , 

Location Countries

United States

Location Countries

United States

Administrative Informations



Organization ID


Secondary IDs


Responsible Party


Study Sponsor

University of California, San Francisco

Study Sponsor

Anuradha Banerjee, MD, Principal Investigator, University of California, San Francisco

Verification Date

April 2020