Safety and Effectiveness of Fenofibrate and Pravastatin in HIV-Positive Patients With Abnormal Blood Lipids

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Brief Title

Safety and Effectiveness of Fenofibrate and Pravastatin in HIV-Positive Patients With Abnormal Blood Lipids

Official Title

A Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized Trial Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Fenofibrate Versus Pravastatin in HIV-Infected Subjects With Lipid Abnormalities

Brief Summary

      The purpose of this study is to compare the safety and effectiveness of fenofibrate and
      pravastatin in treating HIV-positive patients who have abnormal levels of fat (lipids) in the

      Increased lipids in the blood associated with HIV infection and anti-HIV drugs is a growing
      problem. The drugs used in this study are known to reduce certain lipids, but little is known
      about their safety and effectiveness. This study will see if one of the drugs is safer and
      more effective than the other, or if combining the drugs is the safest and most effective way
      to lower lipids. This study has been changed. On June 26, 2001, this study was reviewed by
      the Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB). The DSMB is an independent board monitoring the
      progress of the study. The review showed that neither pravastatin nor fenofibrate alone were
      effective in reaching all the cholesterol and triglyceride goals. There were no safety
      concerns. It is not known if the combination of fenofibrate and pravastatin is effective and
      safe. Therefore, it is important to continue this study.

Detailed Description

      Lipid disorders associated with HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy are of growing
      concern. There is little information available on the safety and efficacy of statins or
      fibrates in the treatment of HIV-associated hyperlipidemias. Fenofibrate and pravastatin both
      are able to reduce low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglycerides (TG), but it is unclear
      whether one therapy will be more effective than the other, or if combination therapy will be
      needed to achieve desirable reductions in both LDL and TG. [AS PER AMENDMENT 12/13/01: The
      NIAID HIV Therapeutic Trials Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) met June 26, 2001 to
      review the interim results. The interim monitoring plan for this study states that accrual
      into either single-agent therapy arm should stop if the response rate failed to meet a
      pre-specified minimum at the time of interim review. The DSMB found that this stopping
      criterion was met for each single-therapy arm. The DSMB recommended that patients currently
      on single-agent therapy be offered the opportunity to initiate dual-agent therapy, regardless
      of time on study. There were no safety concerns.]

      Patients are randomized to either Arm A or Arm B and stratified by gender, TG level, and
      number of cardiovascular risk factors. Patients add daily fenofibrate (Arm A) or pravastatin
      (Arm B) to their antiretroviral therapy for 48 weeks. Evaluations at Week 12 determine LDL,
      TG, and high-density lipid (HDL) levels. Patients who achieve clinical goals for these levels
      stay on the drug for the rest of the study. Patients who do not achieve the goals by Week 12
      receive a combination of pravastatin and fenofibrate for the rest of the study. At regular
      clinic visits, patients have physical exams and are questioned about their medications, diet,
      and exercise. Blood samples are drawn for clinical evaluations, including lipid profiles and
      HIV-1 RNA monitoring. [AS PER AMENDMENT 12/13/01: On June 26, 2001, the DSMB reviewed interim
      results and determined that the response rates for both arms met the stopping rule for
      futility. As a result, all patients who were currently on single-agent therapy were offered
      the opportunity to initiate dual-agent therapy regardless of time on study. No additional
      accrual was sought; however, exceptions were made for patients who were in screening at the
      time of the DSMB review. These patients were given the option of starting single- or
      dual-agent therapy. The DSMB recommended that all patients on dual-agent therapy be followed
      for 32 weeks to obtain additional safety and efficacy data. Further endpoints will be
      analyzed after Week 12 of single-agent therapy or Week 32 of dual-agent therapy.]

Study Phase

Phase 3

Study Type



HIV Infections


Pravastatin sodium


* Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by National Clinical Trials Identifier (NCT ID) in Medline.

Recruitment Information

Recruitment Status


Estimated Enrollment


Completion Date

May 2003

Eligibility Criteria

        Inclusion Criteria

        Patients may be eligible for this study if they:

          -  Are HIV-positive.

          -  Are at least 18 years old.

          -  Are on a lipid-lowering diet based on the patient's statement and have been exercising
             for at least 30 days before being screened for the study. Patients will be asked if
             they were counseled by their health care provider. The lipid-lowering diet and
             exercise program do not have to be prescribed by a physician.

          -  Have a triglyceride (TG) level of at least 200 mg/dl and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
             level of at least 130 mg/dl after fasting for 8 to 12 hours.

          -  Have been treated with anti-HIV drugs for more than 6 months. Patients must be taking
             the anti-HIV drugs regularly for at least 4 weeks before they enter the study.
             Patients must be taking anti-HIV drugs regularly for at least 8 weeks if they have
             changed from taking protease inhibitor (PI) anti-HIV drugs to non-PI anti-HIV drugs.
             Any combination without a PI must lower the patient's HIV viral levels, as determined
             by the patient's physician.

          -  Are willing, if able to become pregnant, to use 2 reliable types of birth control
             while taking the study drug(s) and for 1 month after stopping the drug(s).

          -  Have a negative pregnancy test.

          -  (This reflects a change in inclusion requirements.)

        Exclusion Criteria

        Patients will not be eligible for the study if they:

          -  Have a history of heart disease.

          -  Have uncontrolled high blood pressure within 4 weeks of study entry.

          -  Have liver disease.

          -  Have gall bladder disease or symptoms within 3 months prior to study entry or symptoms
             of gallstones.

          -  Had surgery to remove their gallbladder within 3 months prior to study entry.

          -  Have diabetes requiring drug treatment or diabetes not controlled by diet.

          -  Have hypothyroidism (low thyroid activity).

          -  Are allergic or sensitive to the study drug(s) or to other lipid-lowering drugs.

          -  Have rhabdomyolysis (a muscle disease).

          -  Have taken any prescription or non-prescription lipid-lowering drug within 14 days
             prior to study entry or for over 24 weeks in the past.

          -  Take prescription lipid-lowering agents, other than those given by the study, and
             non-prescription lipid-lowering agents such as garlic supplements.

          -  Have failed previous statin or fibrate therapy (after 24 weeks of treatment) or have
             had side effects from these drugs.

          -  Receive or have received (within 14 days of study entry) treatment not approved by the
             FDA. Anti-HIV medications and immune-based treatments not approved by the FDA may be
             allowed on a case-by-case basis with the approval of the protocol team.

          -  Were given systemic chemotherapy for cancer other than Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).

          -  Were given radiation therapy within 30 days of study entry.

          -  Take drugs that increase risk of muscle disease (such as cyclosporine, erythromycin,
             itraconazole, and ketoconazole), within 14 days of study entry.

          -  Take or have taken levothyroxine and liothyronine for hypothyroidism.

          -  Take high doses of testosterone.

          -  Take creatine monophosphate or drugs that affect the immune system, within 30 days of
             study entry.

          -  Abuse drugs or alcohol, and the doctor thinks this may interfere with the study.

          -  Are pregnant or breast-feeding.

          -  Had a scheduled anti-HIV treatment withdrawal prior to study entry.

          -  (This reflects a change in exclusion requirements.)




18 Years - N/A

Accepts Healthy Volunteers



Judith Aberg, , 

Location Countries

Puerto Rico

Location Countries

Puerto Rico

Administrative Informations



Organization ID


Secondary IDs


Responsible Party


Study Sponsor

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Study Sponsor

Judith Aberg, Study Chair, 

Verification Date

October 2021