Pirfenidone in Children and Young Adults With Neurofibromatosis Type I and Progressive Plexiform Neurofibromas

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Brief Title

Pirfenidone in Children and Young Adults With Neurofibromatosis Type I and Progressive Plexiform Neurofibromas

Official Title

Phase II Trial of Pirfenidone in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and Progressive Plexiform Neurofibromas

Brief Summary

      Background:

      Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant, progressive genetic disorder
      characterized by diverse clinical manifestations. Patients with NF1 have an increased risk of
      developing tumors of the central and peripheral nervous system including plexiform
      neurofibromas, which are benign nerve sheath tumors that may cause severe morbidity and
      possible mortality. The histopathology of these tumors suggests that events connected with
      formation of fibroblasts might constitute a point of molecular vulnerability. Gene profile
      analysis demonstrates overexpression of fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor,
      and platelet-derived growth factor in plexiform neurofibromas in patients with NF1.
      Pirfenidone is a novel antifibrotic agent that inhibits these and other growth factors.
      Clinical experience in adults has demonstrated that pirfenidone is effective in a variety of
      fibrosing conditions and pirfenidone is presently under study in a phase II trial for adults
      with progressive plexiform neurofibromas. A phase I trial of pirfenidone in children and
      young adults with NF1 and plexiform neurofibromas was completed, and has established the
      phase II dose (the dose resulting in a mean drug exposure [AUC] not more than 1 standard
      deviation below the mean drug exposure [AUC] in adults who received pirfenidone at the dose
      level demonstrating activity in fibrosing conditions). Pirfenidone has been well tolerated.

      Objectives:

      To determine whether pirfenidone increases the time to disease progression based on
      volumetric measurements in children and young adults with NF1 and growing plexiform
      neurofibromas.

      To define the objective response rate to pirfenidone in NF1-related plexiform neurofibromas.

      To describe and define the toxicities of pirfenidone.

      Eligibility:

      Individuals (greater than or equal to 3 years to less than or equal to 21 years of age) with
      a clinical diagnosis of NF1 and inoperable, measurable, and progressive plexiform
      neurofibromas that have the potential to cause substantial morbidity.

      Design:

      The phase II dose will be used in a single stage, single arm phase II trial The natural
      history of the growth of plexiform neurofibromas is unknown. For this reason, time to disease
      progression on the placebo arm of an ongoing National Cancer Institute (NCI) Pediatric
      Oncology Branch (POB) placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over phase II trial of the
      farnesyltransferase inhibitor R115777 for children and young adults with NF1 and progressive
      plexiform neurofibromas.

      Funding source - Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Office of Orphan Products Development
      (OOPD)
    

Detailed Description

      Background:

      Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant, progressive genetic disorder
      characterized by diverse clinical manifestations. Patients with NF1 have an increased risk of
      developing tumors of the central and peripheral nervous system including plexiform
      neurofibromas, which are benign nerve sheath tumors that may cause severe morbidity and
      possible mortality. The histopathology of these tumors suggests that events connected with
      formation of fibroblasts might constitute a point of molecular vulnerability. Gene profile
      analysis demonstrates overexpression of fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor,
      and platelet-derived growth factor in plexiform neurofibromas in patients with NF1.
      Pirfenidone is a novel antifibrotic agent that inhibits these and other growth factors.
      Clinical experience in adults has demonstrated that pirfenidone is effective in a variety of
      fibrosing conditions and pirfenidone is presently under study in a phase II trial for adults
      with progressive plexiform neurofibromas. A phase I trial of pirfenidone in children and
      young adults with NF1 and plexiform neurofibromas was completed, and has established the
      phase II dose (the dose resulting in a mean drug exposure [AUC] not more than 1 standard
      deviation below the mean drug exposure [AUC] in adults who received pirfenidone at the dose
      level demonstrating activity in fibrosing conditions). Pirfenidone has been well tolerated.

      Objectives:

      To determine whether pirfenidone increases the time to disease progression based on
      volumetric measurements in children and young adults with NF1 and growing plexiform
      neurofibromas.

      To define the objective response rate to pirfenidone in NF1-related plexiform neurofibromas.

      To describe and define the toxicities of pirfenidone.

      Eligibility:

      Individuals (greater than or equal to 3 years to less than or equal to 21 years of age) with
      a clinical diagnosis of NF1 and inoperable, measurable, and progressive plexiform
      neurofibromas that have the potential to cause substantial morbidity.

      Design:

      The phase II dose will be used in a single stage, single arm phase II trial The natural
      history of the growth of plexiform neurofibromas is unknown. For this reason, time to disease
      progression on the placebo arm of an ongoing National Cancer Institute (NCI) Pediatric
      Oncology Branch (POB) placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over phase II trial of the
      farnesyltransferase inhibitor R115777 for children and young adults with NF1 and progressive
      plexiform neurofibromas will be used as historical control to determine if pirfenidone
      increases time to disease progression. Eligibility criteria and method of tumor measurements
      are identical for both trials.

      Pirfenidone will be administered orally as capsules at a dose of 500 mg/m^2 three times a day
      (q8h) for cycles of 28 days with no rest period between cycles based on the results of our
      pediatric phase I trial.
    

Study Phase

Phase 2

Study Type

Interventional


Primary Outcome

Median Time to Disease Progression

Secondary Outcome

 Quality of Life (QOL) Using the Impact of Pediatric Illness (IPI) Scale at Baseline

Condition

Neurofibromatosis 1

Intervention

Pirfenidone

Study Arms / Comparison Groups

 Pirfenidone
Description:  Pirfenidone orally as capsules three times a day approximately every 8 hours for cycles of 28 days with no rest period between cycles (28 day treatment cycles); 500 mg/m^2 every 8 hours (1500 mg/m2/day).

Publications

* Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by National Clinical Trials Identifier (NCT ID) in Medline.

Recruitment Information


Recruitment Status

Drug

Estimated Enrollment

36

Start Date

July 21, 2004

Completion Date

April 1, 2010

Primary Completion Date

April 1, 2010

Eligibility Criteria

        -  INCLUSION CRITERIA:

               1. Age: greater than or equal to 3 years and Less than or equal to 21 years of age.
                  Required body surface area (BSA): greater than or equal to 0.31 m^2.

               2. Diagnosis: Patients with NF1 and progressive plexiform neurofibromas that have
                  the potential to cause significant morbidity, such as (but not limited to) head
                  and neck lesions that could compromise the airway or great vessels, brachial or
                  lumbar plexus lesions that could cause nerve compression and loss of function,
                  lesions that could result in major deformity (e.g., orbital lesions) or
                  significant cosmetic problems, lesions of the extremity that cause limb
                  hypertrophy or loss of function, and painful lesions. Histologic confirmation of
                  tumor is not necessary in the presence of consistent clinical and radiographic
                  findings, but should be considered if malignant degeneration of a plexiform
                  neurofibroma is clinically suspected. In addition to plexiform neurofibroma(s),
                  all study subjects must have at least one other diagnostic criteria for NF1
                  listed below (National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Conference):

               1. Six or more cafe-au-lait spots (greater than or equal to 0.5 cm in prepubertal
                  subjects or greater than or equal to 1.5 cm in postpubertal subjects)

               2. Freckling in the axilla or groin

               3. Optic glioma

               4. Two or more Lisch nodules

               5. A distinctive bony lesion (dysplasia of the sphenoid bone or dysplasia or
                  thinning of long bone cortex)

               6. A first-degree relative with NF1

        In this study a plexiform neurofibroma is defined as a neurofibroma that has grown along
        the length of a nerve and may involve multiple fascicles and branches. A spinal plexiform
        neurofibroma involves two or more levels with connection between the levels or extending
        laterally along the nerve.

        3. Measurable disease: Patients must have measurable plexiform neurofibroma(s). For the
        purpose of this study a measurable lesion will be defined as a lesion of at least 3 cm
        measured in one dimension. There must be evidence of recurrent or progressive disease as
        documented by an increase in size or the presence of new plexiform neurofibromas on MRI.
        Progression at the time of study entry is defined as:

        A. A measurable increase of the plexiform neurofibroma (greater than or equal to 20%
        increase in the volume, or a greater than or equal to 13% increase in the product of the
        two longest perpendicular diameters, or a greater than or equal to 6% increase in the
        longest diameter) over the last two consecutive scans (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or
        computed tomography (CT), or over the time period of approximately one year prior to
        evaluation for this study.

        B. Patients who underwent surgery for a progressive plexiform neurofibroma will be eligible
        to enter the study after the surgery, provided the plexiform neurofibroma was incompletely
        resected and is measurable.

        4. Prior therapy: Patients with NFI are eligible at the time of recurrence or progression
        of an inoperable plexiform neurofibroma. Patients will only be eligible if complete tumor
        resection is not feasible, or if a patient with a surgical option refuses surgery.

        Since there is no standard effective chemotherapy for patients with NF1 and progressive
        plexiform neurofibromas, patients may be treated on this trial without having received
        prior medical therapy.

        Patients who received prior medical treatment for their plexiform neurofibroma(s) must have
        recovered from the toxic effects of all prior therapy before entering this study. The
        Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE-3)
        Version 3.0 will be used for toxicity assessment. A copy of the CTCAE version 3.0 can be
        downloaded from the CTEP home page (http:// ctep.cancer.gov). Recovery is defined as a
        toxicity grade less than 2, unless otherwise specified in the Inclusion and Exclusion
        Criteria.

        Patients must have had their last dose of radiation therapy at least six weeks prior to
        study entry, and their last dose of chemotherapy at least four weeks prior to study entry.
        Patients who received G-CSF after the prior cycle of chemotherapy must be off G-CSF for at
        least one week prior to entering this study.

        5. Performance Status: Performance Status: Patients should have a life expectancy of at
        least 12 months. Patients greater than 10 years must have a Karnofsky performance level
        greater than or equal to 50, and children less than or equal to 10 years must have a Lansky
        performance level greater than or equal to 50. Patients who are wheelchair bound because of
        paralysis should be considered ambulatory when they are up in their wheel chair.

        6. Hematologic Function: Patients must have an absolute granulocyte count greater than or
        equal to 1,500/uL, a hemoglobin greater than or equal to 9.0 gm/dl, and a platelet count
        greater than or equal to 150,000/microliter at study entry (all transfusion independent).

        7. Hepatic Function: Patients must have a bilirubin within normal limits and serum glutamic
        pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) less then or equal to 2x upper limit of normal. Patients with
        Gilbert syndrome are excluded from the requirement of a normal bilirubin. (Gilbert syndrome
        is found in 3-10% of the general population, and is characterized by mild, chronic
        unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in the absence of liver disease or overt hemolysis).

        8. Renal Function: Patients must have an age-adjusted normal serum creatinine (see table
        below) OR a creatinine clearance greater than or equal to 70 mL/min/1.73 m^2.

        Age Maximum Serum Creatinine

        (years) (mg/dl)

        less than or equal to 5 0.8

        5 less than age less than or equal to 10 1.0

        10 less than age less than or equal to 15 1.2

        greater than 15 1.5

        9. Informed Consent: All patients or their legal guardians (if the patients is less than 18
        years old) must sign an Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved document of informed
        consent (screening protocol) prior to performing studies to determine patient eligibility.
        After confirmation of patient eligibility all patients or their legal guardians must sign
        the protocol specific informed consent to document their understanding of the
        investigational nature and the risks of this study before any protocol related studies are
        performed (other than the studies which were performed to determine patient eligibility).
        When appropriate, pediatric patients will be included in all discussions. Age appropriate
        assent forms for children from 7 through 12 years, and for children from 13 through 17
        years have been developed and will be signed by the pediatric patients, when appropriate,
        in order to obtain written assent.

        10. Durable Power of Attorney (DPA): All patients greater than or equal to 18 years of age
        will be offered the opportunity to assign DPA so that another person can make decisions
        about their medical care if they become incapacitated or cognitively impaired.

        11. Patients must be able to take pirfenidone by mouth. Capsules can be opened and content
        mixed with food for easier consumption in small children.

        12. Patients (both male and female) must be willing to practice birth control (including
        abstinence) during and for two months after treatment, if of a child-bearing age. For
        purposes of the protocol, all patients greater than 9 years of age or those showing
        pubertal development will be considered of childbearing age.

        13. Ability to undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and no contraindication for MRI
        examinations following the MRI protocol outlined.

        EXCLUSION CRITERIA:

          1. Pregnant or breast feeding females are excluded, because the toxic effects and
             pharmacology of pirfenidone in the fetus and newborn are unknown.

          2. Clinically significant unrelated systemic illness (serious infections or significant
             cardiac, pulmonary, hepatic or other organ dysfunction), which in the judgment of the
             Principal or Associate Investigator would compromise the patient's ability to tolerate
             pirfenidone or are likely to interfere with the study procedures or results.

          3. An investigational agent within the past 30 days.

          4. Ongoing radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy directed at the tumor,
             immunotherapy, or biologic therapy (for example interferon).

          5. Inability to return for follow-up visits or obtain follow-up studies required to
             assess toxicity and response to therapy.

          6. Prior treatment with pirfenidone.

          7. Evidence of an optic glioma, malignant glioma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath
             tumor, or other cancer requiring treatment with chemotherapy or radiation therapy
      

Gender

All

Ages

3 Years - 21 Years

Accepts Healthy Volunteers

No

Contacts

Brigitte C Widemann, M.D., , 

Location Countries

United States

Location Countries

United States

Administrative Informations


NCT ID

NCT00076102

Organization ID

040080

Secondary IDs

04-C-0080

Responsible Party

Principal Investigator

Study Sponsor

National Cancer Institute (NCI)


Study Sponsor

Brigitte C Widemann, M.D., Principal Investigator, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health


Verification Date

April 2018