Studies of Immune Responses to Orally Administered Vaccines in Developing Country

Learn more about:
Related Clinical Trial
Transcriptomic Responses for the Identification of Pathogens Evaluation of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Effectiveness in Ghana Non-inferiority and Safety Study of EuTCV Compared to Typbar-TCV in Healthy 6 Months-45 Years Aged Participants Commercial Typhoid Tests Validation Trial Commercial Typhoid Tests Validation WHNRC (Western Human Nutrition Research Center) Fiber Intervention Study The Azithromycin and Cefixime Treatment of Typhoid in South Asia Trial (ACT-South Asia Trial) Phase 4 Study To Assess The Safety Of Vivotif At Different Release Titers Among Travelers Extension Study of H01_04TP to Evaluate the Booster Response Induced by Vi-CRM197 in Adults Safety and Immunogenicity of Three Formulations of Vi-CRM197 Vaccine Against S. Typhi in Adults (18-40 Years Old) Safety and Immunogenicity of Vi-CRM197 Vaccine Against S. Typhi in Adult (18-40 Years Old) Effects of Aging on Primary and Secondary Vaccine Responses in a 15-Year Longitudinal Cohort Safety and Immunogenicity of Typhax, a Typhoid Vaccine Safety and Tolerability of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine (EuTCV) in Healthy Adults Immune Equivalence Between Multi-dose and Single Dose Formulation of Vi-DT and Their Overall Safety (Phase III) Investigating Enteric Fever – Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi Challenge Study Induction of Gut Permeability by an Oral Vaccine Studies of Immune Responses to Orally Administered Vaccines in Developing Country Long Term Protection by and Persistence of Vi Antibodies Induced by Vi-rEPA Conjugate Vaccines in Vietnamese Children Injected at 2-5 Years or at 5-8 Years of Age Salmonella Typhi Vi O-Acetyl Pectin-rEPA Conjugate Vaccine Safety and Immunogenicity of Vi-CRM197 Vaccine Against S. Typhi in Adults, Children, Older Infants and Infants Safety and Immunogenicity of Vi-CRM197 Vaccine Against S. Typhi in Children, Older Infants and Infants Typhoid Fever: Combined vs. Single Antibiotic Therapy Vaccines Against Salmonella Typhi Immune Non-inferiority and Safety of a Vi-DT Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Dose Ranging Study to Determine the Safety, Reactogenicity and Immunogenicity of Typhoid Fever Vaccine (Ty800) in Healthy Adult Subjects Immunogenicity, Safety and Tolerability of the Typhoid Fever Vaccine Candidate M01ZH09 in Healthy Adults CVD 909 Vi Prime Boost Study Gatifloxacin Versus Ceftriaxone in the Treatment of Enteric Fever Safety, Reactogenicity and Immunogenicity of Vi-DT;Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Introduction in Navi Mumbai, India Clinical Efficacy of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine (Vi-TCV) Among Children Age 9 Months Through 12 Years in Blantyre, Malawi Study of a Single Dose of SP093 Typhoid Vi Polysaccharide Vaccine in Japanese Subjects Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Trial Among Children Younger Than 2 Years in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Understanding Typhoid Disease After Vaccination Typhoid Vi Vaccine Effectiveness in Hechi, Guangxi, China Introduction of the Vi Polysaccharide Typhoid Vaccine in Hue City, Central Vietnam Comparison of Two Drugs Regimen in Treatment of Complicated Typhoid Fever in Children Evaluation of the Vi Polysaccharide Vaccine Against Typhoid Fever Safety and Immunogenicity of a Vi-DT Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Combined Vi Vaccination and Health Education Program on the Burden of Typhoid in Childhood Global Genomic and Proteomic Profiling of African Children With Typhoid Fever

Brief Title

Studies of Immune Responses to Orally Administered Vaccines in Developing Country

Official Title

Studies of Acute and Memory Immune Responses to Orally Administered Vaccines in Developing Country Children and Factors That May Augment Such Responses

Brief Summary

      The efficacy and immunogenicity of enteric vaccines have generally been found to be lower in
      children in the developed than in the developing countries. This has been observed with
      vaccines against cholera rotavirus, ETEC and typhoid vaccines. There are a number of factors
      that may contribute to such differences in vaccine "take rates" in children, e.g. breast
      feeding and nutritional status of the children might influence their immunogenicity and
      efficacy. Thus, breast feeding of newborn and young infants may adversely influence the
      immune response to vaccination, which might have more pronounced effect in developing than in
      developed countries. Breastfeeding has also been shown to interfere with the serum immune
      responses to rotavirus vaccine although this effect could be overcome by administering three
      rather than one dose of the oral rotavirus vaccine. Our recent study of Dukoral in
      Bangladeshi children aged 18 months or younger has shown that the response rates and the
      magnitude of responses improved when breast milk was temporarily withheld . Thus,
      administration of vaccines may have to be adjusted when given to breast fed children. Another
      factor that may affect the immunogenicity is the effect of zinc. Previous studies have shown
      that zinc enhances the immune response to cholera vaccine in participants > 2 years of age ,
      a recent study also observed a similar effect in infants.

      In this research project, we plan to study a number of different factors that might influence
      the immunogenicity of the two licensed oral model vaccines, specifically the inactivated
      killed oral cholera vaccine, Dukoral, and the live oral typhoid vaccine, Ty21a. We will also
      identify strategies that might improve the immunogenicity of the vaccines. The main objective
      of our study is to identify immunization regimens that may improve the immunogenicity of the
      vaccines in young children, which could be subsequently in field trials in Bangladesh and
      other developing countries. Specifically, we will determine if: (i) interventions identified
      to enhance immune responses to Dukoral, including zinc supplementation, could also enhance
      the immune responses to Ty21a; (ii) these two vaccines are able to induce both acute and
      memory B and T cell responses, (iii) treatment with antiparasitic drugs prior to immunization
      could modulate the immune responses to cholera and typhoid vaccines; and (iv) examine if
      arsenic exerts a suppressive effect on the immunogenicity of these vaccines.
    

Detailed Description

      Research Design and Methods

      Vaccine field sites and overall study design:

      Mirpur. The vaccine studies will be carried out at the field site in Mirpur, in urban Dhaka,
      where oral cholera, ETEC and rotavirus studies as well as amoebiasis studies are being
      conducted over the last 15 years . For the Dukoral vaccine, two doses will be given to the
      study participants, 14 days apart. In case of Vivotif, 3 doses will be administered on
      alternate days i.e. days 1, 3 and 5 or in two doses 28 days apart.

      Blood and stool samples will be collected prior to vaccination, and 7 days after intake of
      each dose of the cholera vaccine and 7 days after the intake of last dose of typhoid vaccine,
      and the volumes to be sampled for immunological assays have been described in Appendix 2. The
      participants will not be allowed to eat or drink from one hour before and one hour after
      intake of the vaccine. To assess the effect of zinc on immune response to typhoid vaccine in
      young children, supplementation will be initiated 2 weeks before the first dose and will
      continue up to 21 days after the last (third) dose of typhoid vaccine (that is for a total of
      40 days).

      Serum zinc concentrations will be determined at baseline only. Venous blood will be collected
      in trace element free vacutainers, which will be placed in ice until arrival at the ICDDR,B
      laboratory the same day.

      Vaccine studies in an arsenic contaminated area in Shahrasti:

      Shahrasti thana with a population of around 200,000 is located about 40 kilometers from
      Matlab, and is well connected with Comilla, Chandpur and Dhaka by road. According to BAMWSP
      (Bangladesh Arsenic Mitigation Water Supply Project), subsoil water in Shahrasti Thana is
      heavily contaminated with arsenic; about 99% of the tube wells are reported to have been
      contaminated (50 microgram/L). BAMWSP and DGHS have already identified 3000 patients with
      skin lesions consistent with arsenic toxicity, and represent the area with the second highest
      number of arsenic-induced skin lesions in Bangladesh. In collaboration with ICDDR,B, the
      University Chicago and Columbia University are jointly conducting a large longitudinal
      surveillance and clinical trial on patients with arsenic induced skin lesion. The aim of this
      large study is to reduce skin cancer by evaluating clinical as well biochemical markers. We
      plan to study responses of children in these sites to Dukoral using the infrastructure and
      facilities from the ongoing studies . The immunogenicity studies will be carried out as
      described earlier. We plan to immunize 102 children aged 2-5 years with two doses of Dukoral
      at an interval of 14 days. Equal numbers of children will be studied in an area known to have
      low levels of arsenic, in Mirpur field site in Dhaka city . This will be the first study to
      compare immune responses to a mucosal vaccine in an arsenic prone and arsenic low area.

      Informed consent and selection of study subjects for vaccine studies:

      Voluntary written informed consent will be obtained from the parent/guardians for
      participation of children including their vaccination and sampling of blood and stool for
      various assays (Appendices). Healthy children (1 - 5 years) and adults (18-45 years) both
      males and females living in the Mirpur field site, who are not currently enrolled in any
      other research study, whether conducted by ICDDR,B or other organization, will be screened
      and enrolled subject to meeting the eligibility criteria. Similar procedures will be followed
      for part of the Dukoral study that will be conducted in Shahrasti.

      We have previously experienced that at least 60% of the families do agree to participation of
      their children in research studies. The prospective participants of this study will be
      carefully examined and assessed by a physician before enrollment. A detailed history of their
      previous immunizations will be obtained, and their nutritional status and recent illness (as
      outlined below) that could compromise the immune system and family background etc. will be
      considered before study enrollment. The participants should be free from any chronic disease
      or any recent illness that may compromise the immune system including arsenic related skin
      lesions in children in Shahrasti where only Dukoral vaccine would be evaluated.

      Children will also be excluded if they have: (i) history of chronic gastrointestinal
      disorder; (ii) diarrheal illness in the past 2 weeks (diarrhea defined as passage of 3 or
      more abnormally loose or watery stool in a 24 hour period; (iii) any febrile illness in the
      preceding week; (iv) other chronic illness; (v) history of receiving antibiotic treatment
      within the last 7 day; and (vi) severe protein energy malnutrition (PEM). The nutritional
      status of the children will be assessed using anthropometric measurements (weight-for-age,
      and weight-for-length/height); children below -2SD for weight for height/length of the NCHS
      median will not be enrolled. Similarly, children who have received zinc in the past two
      months will also not be recruited.

      Baseline laboratory assessments:

      Stool: Microscopic examination, and culture for isolation and identification of enteric
      pathogens including ETEC. V. cholerae and S.Typhi will be carried out for four days prior to
      vaccination. Children who have any of these pathogens isolated from their stool specimen will
      not be vaccinated since they will confound evaluation of the response to the vaccine. When
      immunization for the second dose of the vaccine will be carried out (14 days after the first
      dose) children who have fever or diarrhea will be excluded from the study.

      For arsenic related studies, urine will be collected and stored for assessment of levels of
      arsenic. This will be carried out in the Biochemistry and Nutrition Unit of ICDDR,B using
      standard procedures.

      Vaccine, administration and allocation:

      Dukoral. The cholera vaccine, Dukoral is produced by the Swedish Bacteriological Laboratories
      (SBL Vaccin AB Stockholm, Sweden). This inactivated, oral cholera vaccine consists of killed
      bacteria prepared from individual strains of O1 ElTor and classical V. cholerae that include
      both LPS and protein antigens, and also contains recombinant B subunit of cholera toxin
      (rCTB). One dose of vaccine contains 1.25 x 1011 killed whole cells plus 1 mg of rCTB.
      Immediately before use, individual doses of the liquid form of the vaccine will be mixed with
      the reconstituted bicarbonate buffer. For children, the vaccine will be suspended in 20 ml
      (total 4 teaspoon) of bicarbonate-citric acid buffer [the buffer is prepared by adding 100 ml
      water to a sachet of bicarbonate buffer (2 g bicarbonate; 750 mg of citric acid; Recip AB,
      Stockholm). For adults, Dukoral will be reconstituted in 100 ml of the buffer.

      Vivotif: Live, attenuated oral typhoid vaccine, Vivotif, contains 2-6x109 CFU (colony-forming
      units) of S. Typhi Ty21a strain (1,2). The Berna Biotech Ltd, Berne, Switzerland,
      manufactures this vaccine. The enteric-coated, typhoid vaccines are packaged as sets of
      3-capsules. The vaccine capsule is swallowed with drinking water and administered on
      alternate days i.e. days 1, 3 and 5. For immunization of children under 5 years of age, we
      plan to administer the vaccine in bicarbonate buffer as is the procedure in for children in
      travelers clinics (Sweden and USA). For this purpose the capsule is opened up and the
      contents suspended in 20 ml of bicarbonate buffer and then taken orally.

      Overall sample size calculations:

      The sample size has been estimated for different interventions, using a one-sided hypothesis
      with 95% confidence, a minimum detectable mean difference (DMD) of 50% improvement over the
      baseline, adjusted for around 15% dropouts.

      In earlier Dukoral cholera vaccine studies in Bangladesh, 56% of the recipient children aged
      6 months to 2 years responded with vibriocidal antibodies ; For the Vivotif vaccine data from
      vaccines aged >6 years documented 67% seroconversion. The sample sizes for different
      components of the study have been calculated based on the assumption that 50% of children
      will respond to Vivotif. Based on the results obtained with zinc supplementation on the
      immune response to Dukoral, that observed increase in the rates with supplementation from 56%
      to 79% , and assuming a 30% increase in responses to Vivotif (with around 15 attrition rates)
      the sample size will be 75 in each group (with and without zinc).

      Prevalence of major enteric parasites in children 2-5 years of age in urban Dhaka is around
      78%. To see the effects of anti-parasitic drug therapy prior to cholera and typhoid
      vaccination, we will enroll 102 children in each group in Dukoral (n=102x2=204) and and
      another 102 children in each group for Vivotif vaccine (102 x 2 = 204). For each vaccine, one
      group will be treated while another will not be. Thus we plan to study a total of 408
      children to determine effect of anti-parasitic drugs on the immune responses to oral cholera
      and typhoid vaccines.

      To determine the effect of arsenic on the immune response to Dukoral, we assume that the
      immunogenicity of the vaccine among children in the arsenic non-contaminated area will be 55%
      and in the contaminated area it will be reduced to 35%. To detect this difference with 95%
      confidence and 90% power, we estimated a sample size of 138 in each of the two study areas.
      With around 10% loss to follow up the required sample size will be 154. Thus, a total of 308
      (154 x 2 = 308) children, aged 2-5 years, will be enrolled.

      To determine the acute and memory B and T cell responses to oral cholera vaccine, studies
      will be conducted in adults (18-45 years) and children of different age groups (1 -5 years).
      For this part of the study, 25 adults, 25 toddlers (2-5 years old), and 25 under-two children
      will be vaccinated. For responses to Vivotif, we will only study adults (n=25) and toddlers
      (n-25).

      The participants will be studied and followed up for the T and B cell responses prior to
      immunization, and during early post-immunization period (post- 7 days), and on 30 days, and
      6, 12 and 24 months following the last dose.

      Administration of associated interventions

      Effect of zinc on the immune responses to Vivotif We would like to study the effect of zinc
      on the immunogenicity of oral typhoid vaccine and cholera vaccine by supplementing children
      with daily zinc sulfate (20 mg/day) for two weeks prior to immunization and until the last
      follow-up for sample collection (n=150).

      Effect of anti-parasitic drugs on the immune responses to Vivotif and Dukoral A total 408
      children will be enrolled to see the effects of anti parasitic therapy prior to cholera and
      typhoid vaccination, equal cholera and typhoid. For this purpose children will be given
      albendazole (400 mg) and secnidazole (500 mg) one week prior to immunization .

      Study the effect of arsenic on the immune response to Dukoral This study will be conducted on
      children (2-5 years) in arsenic contaminated area (Shahrasti) and arsenic free area (Mirpur).
      For this purpose, a total of 308 children (154 from each site) will be enrolled and
      vaccinated with Dukoral. This study will for the first time compare immune responses to a
      mucosal vaccine in an arsenic prone and arsenic low area. Urine will be collected from all
      participants, prior to immunization for determining arsenic levels.

      Determine the acute and memory B and T cell responses to oral cholera and typhoid vaccine in
      children and adults:

      A total of 150 subjects will be vaccinated and followed up for T and B cell responses over a
      period during the early post-immunization period (7 days post-), 30 days, 6, 12 and 24 months
      later.
    

Study Phase

Phase 1/Phase 2

Study Type

Interventional


Primary Outcome

Determine if the immunogenicity of typhoid (Vivotif) and cholera vaccine (Dukoral) in young children is influenced by the factors i. zinc supplementation ii. antiparasitic drugs and iii. relationship between serum arsenic and immune response to Dukoral

Secondary Outcome

 Determine the acute and memory B and T cell responses to oral cholera and typhoid vaccine in children and adults

Condition

Cholera

Intervention

Placebo

Study Arms / Comparison Groups

 zinc supplementation-Placebo
Description:  Determine if the immunogenicity of oral typhoid can be enhanced in children by introducing zinc supplementation: Our recent studies on the interactions of oral cholera vaccine with breast milk and zinc provide some basis for improving immunogenicity, but additional work is needed to improve many of the oral vaccines. In this study we also plan to evaluate if the immune response to Cholera and Vivotif can be enhanced by supplementation with zinc using methods described earlier. We would like to study children, 2-5 years of age for this purpose.

Publications

* Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by National Clinical Trials Identifier (NCT ID) in Medline.

Recruitment Information


Recruitment Status

Drug

Estimated Enrollment

1016

Start Date

February 2008

Completion Date

December 2010

Primary Completion Date

December 2010

Eligibility Criteria

        Inclusion Criteria:

          1. voluntary written informed consent will be obtained from the parent/guardians for
             participation of children including their vaccination and sampling of blood and stool
             for various assays.

          2. healthy children (1 - 5 years)and adults (18-45 years) both males and females living
             in the Mirpur field site, who are not currently enrolled in any other research study,
             whether conducted by ICDDR,B or other organization, will be screened and enrolled
             subject to meeting the eligibility criteria. For Dukoral study that will be conducted
             in Shahrasti we will recruit only 2-5 years old children.

        Exclusion Criteria:

          1. history of chronic gastrointestinal disorder.

          2. diarrheal illness in the past 2 weeks (diarrhea defined as passage of 3 or more
             abnormally loose or watery stool in a 24 hour period.

          3. any febrile illness in the preceding week.

          4. other chronic illness.

          5. history of receiving antibiotic treatment within the last 7 day.

          6. severe protein energy malnutrition (PEM). The nutritional status of the children will
             be assessed using anthropometric measurements (weight-for-age, and
             weight-for-length/height); children below -2SD for weight for height/length of the
             NCHS median will not be enrolled. Similarly, children who have received zinc in the
             past two months will also not be recruited.
      

Gender

All

Ages

1 Year - 45 Years

Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Contacts

Firdausi Qadri, PhD, , 

Location Countries

Bangladesh

Location Countries

Bangladesh

Administrative Informations


NCT ID

NCT01019083

Organization ID

2007-066



Study Sponsor

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh

Collaborators

 Göteborg University

Study Sponsor

Firdausi Qadri, PhD, Principal Investigator, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh


Verification Date

November 2009