Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle Energy Metabolism in Abnormal Growth Hormone States

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Brief Title

Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle Energy Metabolism in Abnormal Growth Hormone States

Official Title

Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle Energy Metabolism in Abnormal Growth Hormone States

Brief Summary

      Growth hormone (GH) is important for growth in childhood, but also has important effects on a
      number of tissues throughout life. GH deficiency and GH excess (acromegaly, caused by a
      pituitary tumour) are both cause serious abnormalities of metabolism and long-standing
      abnormal GH status causes abnormal heart function. In both cases cardiovascular disease is a
      leading cause of early (premature) death. In the current study we wish to investigate the
      energy status of the heart in patients with GH excess and deficiency and compare that with
      age-matched controls. We will perform a blood test to study metabolic parameters. We will
      perform measurements before treatment, after normalisation of improvement of GH levels and 2
      years after start of treatment.

      Objectives

        1. Determine cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism in patients with GH excess
           (=acromegaly) or GH deficiency and detect changes after normalisation of GH and IGF-1
           levels. (IGF-I is a hormone directly influenced by GH)

        2. To correlate muscle energy metabolism parameters to GH and IGF-1 status in the control
           subjects and in both patient groups

        3. Determine the prevalence of coronary artery calcifications in patients with GH excess
           and GH deficiency and correlate this with their metabolic status

        4. To correlate coronary artery calcifications to abdominal obesity. Patients will be
           identified by Endocrinology physicians involved in the study in outpatients clinics or
           Endocrine wards and they will receive standard care for their disease. Tests related to
           endocrine hormone abnormalities will be performed as usual clinical practice. The study
           will involve three 3-hour visits to the Oxford Research Centre and two 1-hour visits to
           London Scanning Centre.

      The visits at the Oxford research centre will include Cardiac and skeletal investigations

        -  Standard cardiac MRI will be used to measure right and left ventricular morphology and
           global function.

        -  31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to monitor heart muscle energy levels (by
           measuring intracellular PCr and ATP in heart muscle).

        -  Heart failure severity (so called 'NYHA status') will be determined from the 6 min walk
           test.

        -  Peak oxygen uptake will be estimated from a metabolic gas exchange analysis performed
           during maximal treadmill exercise testing.

        -  Skeletal muscle MR imaging and spectroscopy will be performed at rest and during
           exercise.

        -  Fasting blood test will be performed, see details in protocol.

        -  Electrocardiogram (ECG)

        -  Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaire and 5 point test for sleep apnoea The visits at
           the London Scanning Centre will include

        -  Electron beam coronary CT (EBCT) to assess coronary disease. The number of coronary
           disease lesions will be measured in several coronary arteries and values will add up to
           an overall score. In addition a single picture will be taken at the level of the
           umbilicus (belly button) to measure fat tissue within the abdomen. Patient selection:
           Patients will be recruited at St. Bartholomew's Hospital (Dr P. Jenkins and Prof. A.
           Grossman), King's Hospital (Dr S. Aylwin) and St Thomas's Hospital (Dr P. Carroll) in
           London, Royal Free Hospital (Prof P. Boloux), the John Radcliffe Hospital Oxford (Prof
           J. Wass), Addenbrooks Hospital Cambridge (Dr H. Simpson), Sheffield (Dr J.
           Newell-Price), and Stroke-on-Trent (Prof R. Clayton) from the Endocrine Wards and
           outpatient clinics. This constitutes a large recruitment base. We estimate that 45 new
           acromegaly patients and 60-80 new GHD patients per year will be screened. Patients will
           be selected on the basis of clinical diagnosis of acromegaly or GH deficiency (see
           details of these in the formal protocol).

      Patients will be managed according to the clinical protocols of the referring centre.

      The patients will have a report of their investigation results with their treating
      physicians.

      Control subjects will be selected from the general population via advertisements. They will
      undergo all tests in the Oxford centre once.

      Expected value of results:

      These studies will increase our knowledge of the metabolic changes associated with GH excess
      and GH deficiency, which can lead to increased cardiac morbidity and mortality in both cases.
      Our studies will help to clarify the mechanism of abnormal cardiac function. The study has
      been powered to have appropriate number of subjects within a two year period, therefore we
      anticipate that it will last from start to finish 4 years.
    

Detailed Description

      INTRODUCTION The effect of GH and IGF-I on the heart has been demonstrated in numerous
      experimental studies. GH and IGF-I receptors are expressed in cardiac myocytes, and IGF-I
      causes hypertrophy of cultured rat cardiomyocytes and delays cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In
      addition, GH and IGF-I have a direct effect on myocardial contractility, increasing the
      intracellular calcium content and enhancing the calcium sensitivity of myofilaments in
      cardiomyocytes. Clinical studies in patients with disorders of the GH/IGF-1 axis confirm the
      significant relationship between GH/IGF-I and the cardiovascular system. Interestingly, both
      GH excess and deficiency states are associated with abnormal cardiac function and with an
      attendant increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in both. Our contention
      is that the apparent paradox of the relationship may be due to changes in the energy state of
      the myocardium in GH excess (acromegaly) and deficiency (GHD in hypopituitarism) and the
      inability of cellular metabolism to change appropriately between the competing demands of
      oxidative stress and anabolic processes. Data from the giant GH-overexpressing transgenic
      mouse demonstrate reduced creatinine phosphate-to-ATP ratio supporting an effect of GH on
      cardiac energy status.

      AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the energy sensor of the cell and has been shown to be
      an important regulator of cell metabolism, including cardiac cells (Dyck & Lopaschuk, 2002).
      AMPK is activated by rising AMP/ATP ratio, and programs intracellular metabolism to conserve
      energy for oxidate metabolism and to suspend anabolic processes. A substantial body of
      evidence testifies to the importance of AMPK and the associated regulation of myocardial
      energy status to cardiac function.

        -  Reduced activity of AMPK is a feature of inherited cardiomyopathies.

        -  Low energy status measured non-invasively is a predictor of death in dilated
           cardiomyopathy.

        -  Activation of AMPK reduces the injury in experimental models of ischaemia

        -  Reduced cardiac energy reserve is a feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and
           cardiovascular death accounts for over 80% of mortality in T2DM.

        -  Drugs which are known to activate AMPK improve mortality in type 2 diabetes, such as
           metformin and glitazones (Kahn et al., 2005).

        -  Cannabinoids and ghrelin, first identified by our group to increase cardiac AMPK levels,
           have been shown to improve ischaemia-reperfusion injury (Frascarelli et al., 2003;
           Underdown et al., 2005; Shibata et al., 2005).

      Taking these experimental observations together, it can be inferred that in diabetic cardiac
      muscle, there is impaired activation of AMPK despite low energy levels, and potentially a
      failure of the normal mechanism to favour oxidative metabolism and cytoprotective functions
      during ischaemia.

      In patients, cardiac AMPK cannot be directly studied, although in a related animal study we
      will assess the effect of GH excess and deficiency on the activation of AMPK cardiac
      intracellular energy status and myocardium function. However, using 31P Magnetic Resonance
      Spectroscopy (MRS), in vivo measurement of high energy phosphate molecules can be assessed
      non-invasively and these have been shown in other diseases to have important clinical
      consequences. Specifically, both phosphocreatine (PCr), and ATP can be determined and ADP
      levels derived from the phosphocreatine:ATP ratio (Scheurmann-Freestone 2003). This approach
      has been recently used to demonstrate low ambient level of myocardial ADP in patients with
      T2DM. In the current study we will investigate the energy status in patients with acromegaly
      and GHD before and after normalisation of their GH status. We hypothesise that in untreated
      acromegaly, the unrestrained drive of anabolism will be associated with a low energy status,
      and particularly in inability to respond to exercise. We propose that in GHD, reduced
      anabolism will be associated with relatively high levels of energy but an impairment of
      muscle mass. We further anticipate that the normalisation of hormone levels resulting from
      either medical or surgical therapy will result in improvement in energy-storing phosphate
      molecule ratios in the myocardium.

      Acromegaly - Cardiac function Acromegalic cardiomyopathy is the specific myocardial disease
      of acromegaly (Clayton, 2003; Sacca et al., 2003; Colao et al., 2004b). Active acromegaly is
      associated with a 2- to 3-fold increase in mortality, mainly from cardiovascular disease,
      although with effective treatment the excess mortality can be reversed (Sheppard, 2005). In
      its early stages, acromegalic cardiomyopathy is characterised by increased left ventricular
      mass, with eccentric remodeling and normal diastolic function with a high cardiac output
      state with reduction of systemic vascular resistance (Fazio et al., 2000). In the next stage,
      increased heart mass and diastolic dysfunction, attributed to direct injury of the myocardium
      with GH hypersecretion, occur in the absence of associated diseases like hypertension,
      diabetes mellitus, and thyroid dysfunction. These abnormalities can progress to dilated
      cardiomyopathy and heart failure if acromegaly remains untreated for many years. There are
      specific structural changes in the myocardium with increased myocyte size and interstitial
      fibrosis of both ventricles. Left ventricular hypertrophy is common (in 64% of newly
      diagnosed cases) even in young patients with short duration of disease (Colao et al., 2003).
      Functionally, the main consequence of these changes is impaired left ventricular diastolic
      function, particularly when exercising, such that exercise tolerance is reduced (Colao et
      al., 2002). Myocardial perfusion is impaired in patients with active acromegaly as assessed
      by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), thus representing an early stage of
      cardiac involvement in acromegaly that may be directly mediated by GH excess (Herrmann et
      al., 2003). Some of these structural and functional changes can be reversed by effective
      treatment to lower serum GH levels to less than 1-2 ng/ml (glucose suppressed or random,
      respectively) and normalize IGF-I and long-term outcome and survival is improved (Colao et
      al., 2002; Jaffrain-Rea et al., 2003). Diastolic function improves with treatment, but the
      effect on exercise tolerance is more variable, and more longitudinal data are required to
      assess the benefits.

      Acromegaly - Coronary atherosclerosis Although coronary disease has a prevalence of 3-40% in
      acromegalic patients, there is considerable controversy whether this is directly related to
      GH excess. According to a well-controlled study (Otsuki et al., 2001) in which intima
      thickness was measured, the extent of atherosclerosis in the acromegalic patients was not
      higher than that in non-acromegalic subjects, and considering their increased number of
      atherosclerotic risk factors, such as lipid abnormalities, diabetes, increased homocystein,
      lipoprotein a, fibrinogen and platelet activator inhibitor 1 levels which are all strong
      predictors of coronary vascular disease, GH might therefore be even protective (Matta &
      Caron, 2003). In a recently described study with 79 acromegalic patients with 22 age-matched
      controls again no difference was observed in intima thickness (Paisley et al., 2006).
      Increased concentration of IGF-I - via its vasodilatotary effect mediated by nitric oxide -
      might be involved in the lack of susceptibility to atherosclerosis in some acromegalic
      patients. There are no previously published studies using electron beam coronary CT in this
      group of patients.

      Acromegaly - Skeletal muscle It is recognised that skeletal muscle in acromegaly fatigues
      rapidly but this has not been adequately explained, particularly in relation to the increase
      in muscle mass. It has been suggested that this may result from associated metabolic
      derangements (diabetes or thyroid abnormalities), or a direct effect of GH excess on muscle.
      Increase in muscle specific creatinine kinase levels have been detected in patients with
      active disease which improves with a reduction of serum GH (McNab & Khandwala, 2005) .
      Microscopic examination of skeletal muscle from acromegalic patients shows type 1 fibre
      hypertrophy (Nagulesparen et al., 1976).

      GHD - Cardiac function Patients with GH deficiency have an increased mortality due to
      cardiovascular disease. Most studies show decreases in heart function such as reduced left
      ventricular mass and cardiac output, and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction
      particularly during exercise; in addition there is an increased incidence of coronary artery
      disease (Colao et al., 2004a; Colao et al., 2004b; Svensson et al., 2005). The mechanism of
      cardiac abnormalities in GHD is debated, but most data support the hypothesis that GHD leads
      to reduced cardiac mass, reduced contractility, reduced pre-load and increased after-load,
      all of which could lead to reduced stroke-volume and reduced cardiac output (Colao et al.,
      2004b). Treatment with GH results in improvement in cardiac function and reduction of
      peripheral resistance due to direct anabolic actions of the myocardium but increased
      dimensions could also be secondary to an increased cardiac output and stroke volume as a
      result of increased contractility and increased pre-load. In conclusion, GHD is associated
      with cardiac dysfunction related to the degree and duration of GHD and GH replacement seems
      to enhance ventricular mass and cardiac function and to reverse diastolic abnormalities
      (Juul, 1996).

      GHD - Coronary sclerosis The evidence linking coronary sclerosis and GHD is robust although
      it is unclear whether this is a direct effect of GH deficiency on cardiac endothelium, or an
      indirect effect of the increase in cardiovascular risk factors documented in patients with
      hypopituitarism and GH deficiency. These include increased abdominal adiposity, abnormal LDL
      and triglyceride levels, high fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor activity,
      increased markers of inflammation (such as interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein) and
      consequently increased intima-thickness (Colao et al., 2004a; Colao et al., 2004b). In our
      studies, we will use electron-beam CT (EBCT) as a non-invasive means of determining coronary
      artery disease, which is a sensitive indicator of IHD. This will allow us to control for
      changes in the onset and/or recovery from ischaemia that might be due to macrovascular
      ischemia rather than reduced intracellular capacitance. There are no previously published
      studies using electron beam coronary CT in these groups of patients.

      GHD - Skeletal muscle Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is associated with fatigue,
      tiredness and isometric muscle strength is reduced to 76%. After 6 months of GH therapy,
      muscle mass increases 5% (Bengtsson et al., 1993; Juul, 1996). Neuromuscular dysfunction is
      also observed (abnormal electromyogram and interference pattern analysis) which improves
      after initiating GH therapy (Webb et al., 2003). The reduced exercise capacity observed in
      GHD is multifactorial but reduced skeletal muscle mass has an important contribution to it
      (Juul, 1996).

      In summary, existing evidence demonstrates that patients with both GH deficiency and GH
      excess have abnormal cardiac and skeletal muscle function, although the nature of the cardiac
      abnormality differs. In acromegaly there is hypertrophy and impaired contractility with
      dysfunction amplified during exercise. In GHD, risk factors for IHD cause premature occlusive
      coronary artery disease, coupled with a poor anabolic stimulus and reduced muscle mass.
      Skeletal muscle echoes these processes. . In transgenic mice overexpressing GH (an
      acromegalic mouse) the phosphocreatine -to-ATP ratio measured by MRS is significantly lower
      in GH overexpressing mice than controls, suggesting impaired energy level in the myocardium
      (Bollano et al., 2000). We hypothesise that chronic growth hormone excess may lead to reduced
      energy level within the myocardium, and that restoration of normal GH level will ameliorate
      this abnormality. Our model would also predict that in GHD resting energy levels would be
      normal or even high, and that the primary defect is a reduction in muscle mass due to reduced
      anabolic stimulus. In patients with GH excess and GHD we will assess cardiac energy levels
      with MRS, a non-invasive technique of assessing myocardial energy metabolism before and after
      treatment, a technique that has been successfully used to establish abnormal heart energy
      levels in patients with diabetes and heart failure (Scheuermann-Freestone et al., 2003).

      Objectives

        1. Determine cardiac (at rest) and skeletal muscle (at rest, peak exercise and recovery)
           energy metabolism in patients with GH excess and detect changes after normalisation of
           GH and IGF-1 levels

        2. Determine cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism in patients with GH deficiency
           and detect changes after normalisation of IGF-1 levels

        3. To correlate muscle energy metabolism parameters to GH and IGF-1 status in the control
           subjects and in both patient groups

        4. Determine the prevalence of coronary artery calcifications in patients with GH excess
           and GH deficiency and correlate with their risk factors and other surrogate markers of
           CHD (serum levels of high sensitivity CRP, lipoprotein (a), homocysteine, and insulin
           resistance (HOMA analysis).

        5. Determine the anatomical distribution of the atheromatous plaques within the coronary
           arteries and the extent of isolated plaques compared to diffuse disease.

      Methods Cardiac and skeletal investigations

        -  MRI at 1.5T (Siemens Sonata) will be used to measure right and left ventricular
           morphology and global function (Sandstede et al., 2005) (i.e. left and right ventricular
           systolic and end-diastolic volumes and ejection fractions). Tissue phase mapping will be
           used to measure radial and rotational tissue velocities for regional wall motion
           abnormalities and abnormal contractile patterns.

        -  31P MRS will be used as previously described (Crilley et al., 2000; Roest et al., 2001)
           to monitor intracellular PCr and ATP in heart muscle. Acquisition will be triggered
           using electrocardiographic gating. Cardiac diastolic function will be measured using
           cine MRI volume-time curves and tissue phase mapping parameters.

        -  Heart failure severity (NYHA status) will be determined from the degree of dyspnoea (6
           min walk test).

        -  Peak O2 uptake (MVO2) will be estimated from a metabolic gas exchange analysis performed
           during maximal treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

        -  Skeletal muscle MR imaging and spectroscopy: The protocol for the 31P MRS determination
           of calf muscle (gastrocnemius and soleus) metabolism at rest and during dynamic exercise
           is well established (Scheuermann-Freestone et al., 2003). A T1-weighted MR image will be
           used to determine the muscle cross-sectional area and 31P MRS of the gastrocnemius
           muscle will be performed at rest, during and after exercise. Each subject will lie in
           the 3T superconducting magnet with their calf overlying a 6 cm diameter surface coil.
           The muscle will be exercised by plantar flexion of the right ankle, lifting a weight of
           10% lean body mass a distance of 7 cm at a rate of 30/min. After acquisition of four
           spectra (each 1.25 min), the weight will be incrementally increased by 2% of lean body
           mass every other minute. The subject will exercise until stopping when fatigued and the
           muscle will then be studied during recovery. On retesting after therapy, exercise will
           continue again until the subject is stopped by fatigue (treatment may lengthen this
           time). Relative concentrations of Pi, PCr and ATP will be measured from their signal
           intensities in the spectra as described previously (Adamopoulos et al., 1999;
           Butterworth et al., 2000; Scheuermann-Freestone et al., 2003).

        -  Electron beam coronary CT (EBCT) to assess coronary disease. As calcium is deposited in
           the earliest stages of atheroma formation, EBCT can detect sub-clinical coronary disease
           many years before it results in ischaemia. The extent of coronary artery calcification
           reflects the overall impact of risk factors, both known and unknown, on the end organ,
           the arterial wall, and as such gives a superior predictive value over the Framingham
           risk assessment (Thompson & Partridge, 2004; Pletcher et al., 2004). EBCT scanning will
           be performed using a GE-IMATRON 300 scanner using a conventional protocol. Calcium
           deposition within coronary arteries will be assessed by total volume and by the Agatson
           correction. The number of plaques and calcium score will be measured in the left main
           artery, left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery, in
           addition to an overall score.

      Other investigations will include: Demographic and clinical data (incl. medication) will be
      obtained for all patients and control subjects; ECG, Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaire
      and 5 point test for sleep apnoea, blood samples will be taken after a 12 h fast, after 30
      min rest, for glucose, lactate, free fatty acids, ketone bodies, insulin, triglyceride,
      cholesterol, HDL, LDL, ANP, BNP, noradrenalin, electrolytes, creatinine, creatinine kinase,
      uric acid, TNF-alpha, leptin, Hb and glycosylated Hb determinations. Apoprotein A/B, High
      sensitivity C-reactive protein, Lipoprotein (a), Homocysteine, Insulin (HOMA analysis),
      biochemistry and liver function, pregnancy test. Endocrine investigations will include
      Glucose tolerance tests (for acromegaly patient; for GHD if necessary), GH day-curve (a mean
      of 5 estimations throughout the day), serum IGF-I, pituitary and peripheral hormones (LH,
      FSH, cortisol, TFT, testo/E2, PRL), estimation of duration of the disease (the presumed
      duration of acromegaly will be estimated by comparison of patients' photographs taken over a
      1-3-decade span and by interviews to date the onset of acral enlargement and other clinical
      symptoms (Damjanovic et al., 2002; Colao et al., 2003)) Patient selection: Patients will be
      recruited at St. Bartholomew's Hospital (Dr P. Jenkins and Prof. A. Grossman), King's
      Hospital (Dr S. Aylwin) and St Thomas's Hospital (Dr P. Carroll) in London, Royal Free
      Hospital (Prof P. Boloux), the John Radcliffe Hospital Oxford (Prof J. Wass), Sheffield (Dr
      J. Newell-Price), and Stroke-on-Trent (Prof R. Clayton) from the Endocrine Wards and
      outpatient clinics. This constitutes a large recruitment base. We estimate that 45 new
      acromegaly patients and 60-80 new GHD patients per year will be screened. Patients will be
      selected on the basis of the clinical diagnosis of acromegaly [Acromegaly: typical signs and
      symptoms and biochemical evidence (GH > 1μg/l during OGTT, IGF-I above age-related reference
      range); GHD: a structural hypothalamo-pituitary defect, at least one other pituitary hormone
      deficiency, AGHDA score >11 (NICE criterion) and evidence of severe biochemical GHD (usually
      a peak GH response to an insulin or glucagon stress test of <3 μg/l)]. Patients will be
      managed according to the clinical protocols of the referring centre.

      Inclusion criteria for acromegaly

        -  Clinical and biochemical diagnosis of acromegaly. Thyroid and glucocorticoid replacement
           if necessary stable for at least 4 weeks before the study. Gonadotrophin status will be
           recorded and whenever possible patients will be studied in the same status

        -  Males and females aged 18-70 years willing to give informed consent

        -  At least 6 months after the onset of symptoms of acromegaly and on stable medication for
           heart failure treatment (if any) for at least 4 weeks prior to inclusion into the study

        -  Systolic blood pressure < 180 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure < 110 mmHg.

      Exclusion criteria:

        -  Change in medication in the preceding 4 weeks

        -  Patients on subcutaneous insulin therapy

        -  Hyperthyroidism

        -  Not being in sinus rhythm

        -  Unstable angina pectoris and decompensated heart failure (define as NYHA 3-4)

        -  Clinically significant valvular disease, clinically significant chronic obstructive
           pulmonary disease

        -  History of myocardial infarction or stroke within the last 6 months, major cardiac
           surgery within the last 6 months

        -  Significant history of drug- or alcohol abuse or unable to give informed consent

        -  Any other significant surgical or medical condition which would considerably affect
           results in view of the identifying clinician

        -  Typical contraindication for MR (e.g. metal implants in delicate positions, aneurysm
           clips, shrapnel injuries, pacemakers, internal defibrillators and severe claustrophobia)

        -  Pregnancy

      Inclusion criteria for GHD

        -  Clinical and biochemical diagnosis of GHD. All hormones replaced (if clinically
           necessary) except GH. Thyroid and glucocorticoid replacement if necessary stable for at
           least 4 weeks before the study. Gonadotrophin status will be recorded and whenever
           possible patients will be studied in the same status

        -  Males and females aged 18-70 years willing to give informed consent

        -  At least 6 months after the onset of symptoms of acromegaly and on stable medication for
           heart failure treatment (if any) for at least 4 weeks prior to inclusion into the study

        -  Systolic blood pressure < 180 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure < 110 mmHg.

      Exclusion criteria:

        -  Change in medication in the preceding 4 weeks

        -  Previous history of acromegaly

        -  Child-hood onset GHD

        -  Patients on subcutaneous insulin therapy metformin probably an exclusion

        -  Hyperthyroidism

        -  Not being in sinus rhythm

        -  Unstable angina pectoris and decompensated heart failure (define as NYHA 3-4)

        -  Clinically significant valvular disease, clinically significant chronic obstructive
           pulmonary disease

        -  History of myocardial infarction or stroke within the last 6 months, major cardiac
           surgery within the last 6 months?

        -  Significant history of drug- or alcohol abuse or unable to give informed consent

        -  Any other significant surgical or medical condition which would considerably affect
           results in view of the identifying clinician

        -  Typical contraindication for MR (e.g. metal implants in delicate positions, aneurysm
           clips, shrapnel injuries, pacemakers, internal defibrillators and severe claustrophobia)

        -  Pregnancy

      POST-TREATMENT ASSESSMENT Three months is estimated to be sufficient time to reach altered
      (improved) cardiac metabolism as assessed by MRS based on previous studies (K. Clarke
      manuscript submitted)). Therefore the first post-treatment assessment will be 3 months after
      biochemical cure.

      In acromegalic patients 3 months after documented biochemical remission (IGF-1 levels reached
      upper limit of age-related normal range and day-curve for GH mean < 2.5 mcg/l or GH < 1 mcg/l
      during OGTT) repeat MRI, MRS and biochemical investigations. If patient is not in biochemical
      remission by 24 months, then repeat investigation at 24 months after the start of therapy
      will be performed as the final assessment.

      In GHD patients 3 months after recorded completed dose titration (IGF-I values in the upper
      third of the age-related normal range) repeat MRI, MRS and biochemical investigations. If
      patient has not completed GH dose titration by 24 months, then repeat investigation at 24
      months after the start of GH therapy anyway.

      24 months after start of therapy repeat EBCT. There are data to suggest that for example
      changing lipid status can improve EBCT after 12 months of therapy (Achenbach et al., 2002)
      Age and sex matched control subjects will be recruited and studied according to the
      pre-treatment protocol. Males and females aged 18 to 75 years willing to give informed
      consent will be selected without endocrine or coronary disease, with further exclusion
      criteria as above.

      Power calculation:

      The primary endpoint will be a change in cardiac energetics, as assessed by 31P magnetic
      resonance spectroscopy (MRS) (expressed as PCr/ATP ratio). Power calculations using data from
      our cardiac 31P MRS study (Scheuermann-Freestone et al., 2003) showed a highly significant
      reduction in cardiac PCr/ATP from 2.49 +/- 0.31 to 1.55 +/- 0.37, a difference of 0.94. In
      order to find a biologically significant difference between groups of one standard deviation
      (SD) with 90% power at P< 0.05, we would need to include 21 subjects in each group. For a
      paired study, in which the effects of therapy were tested on the same patient, we would need
      to include 11 patients in each group to find a significant difference between groups of 1 SD
      with 90% power at P< 0.05, while for unpaired comparison with control subjects 15 patients
      are necessary. To allow for patient drop-outs we will include a minimum of 30 subjects in the
      studies. Secondary endpoints for all studies will include cardiac function (MRI) and skeletal
      muscle function and energetics (MRI and MRS, respectively).
    


Study Type

Observational




Condition

Acromegaly


Study Arms / Comparison Groups

 acromegaly
Description:  

Publications

* Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by National Clinical Trials Identifier (NCT ID) in Medline.

Recruitment Information



Estimated Enrollment

25

Start Date

June 2007

Completion Date

December 2011


Eligibility Criteria

        Inclusion Criteria:

        for acromegaly

          -  Clinical and biochemical diagnosis of acromegaly. Thyroid and glucocorticoid
             replacement if necessary stable for at least 4 weeks before the study. Gonadotrophin
             status will be recorded and whenever possible patients will be studied in the same
             status

          -  Males and females aged 18-70 years willing to give informed consent

          -  At least 6 months after the onset of symptoms of acromegaly and on stable medication
             for heart failure treatment (if any) for at least 4 weeks prior to inclusion into the
             study

          -  Systolic blood pressure < 180 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure < 110 mmHg.

        for GHD

          -  Clinical and biochemical diagnosis of GHD. All hormones replaced (if clinically
             necessary) except GH. Thyroid and glucocorticoid replacement if necessary stable for
             at least 4 weeks before the study. Gonadotrophin status will be recorded and whenever
             possible patients will be studied in the same status

          -  Males and females aged 18-70 years willing to give informed consent

          -  At least 6 months after the onset of symptoms of acromegaly and on stable medication
             for heart failure treatment (if any) for at least 4 weeks prior to inclusion into the
             study

          -  Systolic blood pressure < 180 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure < 110 mmHg.

        Exclusion Criteria:

        for acromegaly

          -  Change in medication in the preceding 4 weeks

          -  Patients on subcutaneous insulin therapy

          -  Hyperthyroidism

          -  Not being in sinus rhythm

          -  Unstable angina pectoris and decompensated heart failure (define as NYHA 3-4)

          -  Clinically significant valvular disease, clinically significant chronic obstructive
             pulmonary disease

          -  History of myocardial infarction or stroke within the last 6 months, major cardiac
             surgery within the last 6 months

          -  Significant history of drug- or alcohol abuse or unable to give informed consent

          -  Any other significant surgical or medical condition which would considerably affect
             results in view of the identifying clinician

          -  Typical contraindication for MR (e.g. metal implants in delicate positions, aneurysm
             clips, shrapnel injuries, pacemakers, internal defibrillators and severe
             claustrophobia)

          -  Pregnancy

        for GHD

          -  Change in medication in the preceding 4 weeks

          -  Previous history of acromegaly

          -  Child-hood onset GHD

          -  Patients on subcutaneous insulin therapy metformin probably an exclusion

          -  Hyperthyroidism

          -  Not being in sinus rhythm

          -  Unstable angina pectoris and decompensated heart failure (define as NYHA 3-4)

          -  Clinically significant valvular disease, clinically significant chronic obstructive
             pulmonary disease

          -  History of myocardial infarction or stroke within the last 6 months, major cardiac
             surgery within the last 6 months?

          -  Significant history of drug- or alcohol abuse or unable to give informed consent

          -  Any other significant surgical or medical condition which would considerably affect
             results in view of the identifying clinician

          -  Typical contraindication for MR (e.g. metal implants in delicate positions, aneurysm
             clips, shrapnel injuries, pacemakers, internal defibrillators and severe
             claustrophobia)

          -  Pregnancy
      

Gender

All

Ages

18 Years - 75 Years

Accepts Healthy Volunteers

No

Contacts

Marta Korbonits, MD PhD, , 

Location Countries

United Kingdom

Location Countries

United Kingdom

Administrative Informations


NCT ID

NCT00461240

Organization ID

004604


Responsible Party

Principal Investigator

Study Sponsor

Barts & The London NHS Trust


Study Sponsor

Marta Korbonits, MD PhD, Principal Investigator, Barts and the London Medical School


Verification Date

July 2012