Cryptococcosis is the disease caused by the fungus known as Cryptococcus. Cryptococcus is a type of fungus that is found in the soil, usually in association with bird droppings. The major species of Cryptococcus that causes illness in human is Cryptococcus neoformans, which is found worldwide. Another less common species that can also cause disease in humans is Cryptococcus gattii. Since 1999, C. gattii has also been found in regions of the Pacific Northwest, particularly in Vancouver Island in British Columbia, and Oregon and Washington in the United States.