Pitt-Hopkins syndrome is a condition characterized by intellectual disability and developmental delay which range from moderate to severe, breathing problems, recurrent seizures (epilepsy), and distinctive facial features.
Mutations in the TCF4 gene cause Pitt-Hopkins syndrome. This gene provides instructions for making a protein that attaches (binds) to other proteins and then binds to specific regions of DNA to help control the activity of many other genes. On the basis of its DNA binding and gene controlling activities, the TCF4 protein is known as a transcription factor. The TCF4 protein plays a role in the maturation of cells to carry out specific functions (cell differentiation) and the self-destruction of cells (apoptosis).