Published Date: November 26, 2023Full Text Article
<em>Strongyloides ratti</em> infection in mice: immune response and immune modulation
Authors: Minka Breloer, Lara Linnemann
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2024 Jan 15;379(1894):20220440. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2022.0440. Epub 2023 Nov 27.
Strongyloides ratti is a natural parasite of wild rats and most laboratory mouse strains are also fully permissive. The infection can be divided into three distinct phases: the tissue migration of the infective third stage larvae during the first two days, the early intestinal establishment of S. ratti parasites molting to adults on days three to six and the later intestinal parasitic phase until the end of infection. Immunocompetent mice terminate the S. ratti infection after one month and are semi-resistant to a second infection. Employing the powerful tools of mouse immunology has facilitated a detailed analysis of the initiation, execution and regulation of the immune response to S. ratti. Here we review the information collected to date on the protective immune response to migrating S. ratti larvae in tissues and to adult parasites in the intestine. We show that depending on the phase of infection, a site-specific portfolio of immune effector mechanisms is required for infection control. In addition, we summarize the strategies employed by S. ratti to evade the immune system and survive long enough in its host to replicate despite an effective immune response. Selected murine studies using the closely related Strongyloides venezuelensis will be discussed. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Strongyloides: omics to worm-free populations'.