Published Date: May 19, 2023

Full Text Article

A new global fibrinolysis capacity assay for the sensitive detection of hyperfibrinolysis and hypofibrinogenemia in trauma patients


Authors: Andrea Rossetto, Tracy Torres, Sean Platton, Paul Vulliamy, Nicola Curry, Ross Davenport


J Thromb Haemost. 2023 Oct;21(10):2759-2770. doi: 10.1016/j.jtha.2023.05.005. Epub 2023 May 17.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Conventional clotting tests are not expeditious enough to allow timely targeted interventions in trauma, and current point-of-care analyzers, such as rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), have limited sensitivity for hyperfibrinolysis and hypofibrinogenemia.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of a recently developed global fibrinolysis capacity (GFC) assay in identifying fibrinolysis and hypofibrinogenemia in trauma patients.

METHODS: Exploratory analysis of a prospective cohort of adult trauma patients admitted to a single UK major trauma center and of commercially available healthy donor samples was performed. Lysis time (LT) was measured in plasma according to the GFC manufacturer's protocol, and a novel fibrinogen-related parameter (percentage reduction in GFC optical density from baseline at 1 minute) was derived from the GFC curve. Hyperfibrinolysis was defined as a tissue factor-activated ROTEM maximum lysis of >15% or LT of ≤30 minutes.

RESULTS: Compared to healthy donors (n = 19), non-tranexamic acid-treated trauma patients (n = 82) showed shortened LT, indicative of hyperfibrinolysis (29 minutes [16-35] vs 43 minutes [40-47]; p < .001). Of the 63 patients without overt ROTEM-hyperfibrinolysis, 31 (49%) had LT of ≤30 minutes, with 26% (8 of 31) of them requiring major transfusions. LT showed increased accuracy compared to maximum lysis in predicting 28-day mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.96 [0.92-1.00] vs 0.65 [0.49-0.81]; p = .001). Percentage reduction in GFC optical density from baseline at 1 minute showed comparable specificity (76% vs 79%) to ROTEM clot amplitude at 5 minutes from tissue factor-activated ROTEM with cytochalasin D in detecting hypofibrinogenemia but correctly reclassified >50% of the patients with false negative results, leading to higher sensitivity (90% vs 77%).

CONCLUSION: Severe trauma patients are characterized by a hyperfibrinolytic profile upon admission to the emergency department. The GFC assay is more sensitive than ROTEM in capturing hyperfibrinolysis and hypofibrinogenemia but requires further development and automation.

PMID: 37207863DOI: 10.1016/j.jtha.2023.05.005