Refractory anemia


A bone marrow disease which results in insufficient red blood cells in the blood (anemia). The prognosis is poor with death usually occurring within a couple of years. Type 1 refers to cases where the level of blasts is less than 10% and type 2 refers to cases where the level of blasts is 10-20%. When too many immature blood cells (blasts) are produced by the bone marrow, the condition may progress to acute myeloid leukemia - occurs in about a third of cases in type 2.


* Anemia * Lethargy * Weakness * Pallor * Shortness of breath * Fainting * Heart palpitations * Dizziness * Headache * Ringing in the ears * Sleeping difficulty * Difficulty concentrating * Rapid heartbeat * Menstrual abnormalities * Poor appetite * Irritability * Weakness * Death


Median survival of RA may fall in the 27-50 month range. As noted above, heterogeneity of patient population may account for inter-study variability in median survival. The best outcome is usually observed in RA with isolated 5q- (5q- syndrome of the WHO classification) and in those patients without multilineage dysplasia, corresponding to the RA category in the WHO classification. Chromosomal abnormalities have independent prognostic significance and are to be included in risk assessment at diagnosis. Favourable cytogenetic features are normal karyotype, 5q- or 20q- isolated; unfavourable features are complex karyotype (i.e. 3 or more clonal anomalies) and abnormalities of chromosome 7q; other abnormalities identify patients in the intermediate cytogenetic-risk group.


Womens Health Specialists:- * Obstetrics & Gynecology * Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility * Gynecological Oncology * Maternal & Fetal Medicine * Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine Blood Health Specialists (Hematology): * Hematology (Blood Specialists) * Pediatric Hematology / Oncology (Child Cancer/Leukemia) * Hematopathology