Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is a condition that involves seizures beginning in infancy or, in some cases, before birth. Those affected typically experience prolonged seizures lasting several minutes (status epilepticus). These seizures involve muscle rigidity, convulsions, and loss of consciousness (tonic-clonic seizures). Additional features of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy include low body temperature (hypothermia), poor muscle tone (dystonia) soon after birth, and irritability before a seizure episode. In rare instances, children with this condition do not have seizures until they are 1 to 3 years old. Anticonvulsant drugs, which are usually given to control seizures, are ineffective in people with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy. Instead, people with this type of seizure are medically treated with large daily doses of pyridoxine (a type of vitamin B6 found in food). If left untreated, people with this condition can develop severe brain dysfunction (encephalopathy). Even though seizures can be controlled with pyridoxine, neurological problems such as developmental delay and learning disorders may still occur.
This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.
These resources address the management of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy and may include treatment providers. * Gene Review: Pyridoxine-Dependent SeizuresThis link leads to a site outside Genetics Home Reference. * MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Generalized tonic-clonic seizureThis link leads to a site outside Genetics Home Reference. You might also find information on treatment of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy in Educational resources and Patient support.