Phosphate diabetes


Phosphate diabetes: A condition where the kidney tubules fail to reabsorb phosphate resulting in excess phosphate in the urine.


The list of signs and symptoms mentioned in various sources for Phosphate diabetes includes the 8 symptoms listed below: * Fatigue * Myalgia * Depression * Reduced bone mineral density * Low blood phosphate level * Shortness of breath * Bone pain * Fractures


DM affects an estimated 6% of the population of the United States, about half of whom are undiagnosed. Incidence is greater in females and rises with age. Type 2 accounts for 90% of cases. In type 1 diabetes, pancreatic beta-cell destruction or a primary defect in beta-cell function results in failure to release insulin and ineffective glucose transport. Type 1 immune-mediated diabetes is caused by cell-mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells. The rate of beta-cell destruction is usually higher in children than in adults. The idiopathic form of type 1 diabetes has no known cause. Patients with this form have no evidence of autoimmunity and don’t produce insulin. In type 2 diabetes, beta cells release insulin, but receptors are insulin-resistant and glucose transport is variable and ineffective. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include: * obesity (even an increased percentage of body fat primarily in the abdominal region); risk decreases with weight and drug therapy * lack of physical activity * history of GDM * hypertension * Black, Hispanic, Pacific Islander, Asian American, Native American origin * strong family history of diabetes * older than age 45 * high-density lipoprotein cholesterol of less than 35 or triglyceride of greater than 250 * Seriously impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) test.


Home medical testing related to Phosphate diabetes: * High Cholesterol: Home Testing: o Home Cholesterol Tests o Home Triglycerides Tests o Home Blood Pressure Tests * High Blood Pressure: Home Testing o Home Blood Pressure Monitors o Home Heart Tests * Heart Health: Home Testing: o Heart Rate Monitors o Irregular Heartbeat Detection o Heart Electrocardiogram (ECG) * Thyroid: Home Testing: o Home Thyroid Function Tests o Home TSH Tests o Home Adrenal Function Tests * Diet & Weight Loss: Home Testing: o Home Weight Testing o Home Body Fat Testing (BMI) o Home Body Fat Monitoring o Home Fitness Testing * Diabetes: Related Home Testing: o Home Diabetes Tests o Home Blood Glucose Tests o Home Urine Glucose Tests o Home Urine Ketone Tests o Home Diabetes HbA1c Tests o Home Microalbumin Tests (Kidney) o Home Urine Protein Tests (Kidney) o Home Kidney Tests o Home Eye Tests


Effective treatment normalizes blood glucose and decreases complications using insulin replacement, diet, and exercise. Current forms of insulin replacement include single-dose, mixed-dose, split-mixed dose, and multiple-dose regimens. The multiple-dose regimens may use an insulin pump. Insulin may be rapid acting, intermediate acting, long acting, or a combination of rapid acting and intermediate acting; it may be standard or purified, and it may be derived from beef, pork, or human sources. Purified human insulin is used commonly today. Pancreas transplantation is experimental and requires chronic immunosuppression. Successful treatment requires an extensive dietary education. The patient’s diet is specifically tailored to include the right amount and combination of foods. Almost all foods may be eaten occasionally. The diet should address dietary prescriptions as well as personal and cultural preferences to improve adherence and control. For the obese patient with type 2 diabetes, weight reduction is a goal. In type 1 diabetes, the calorie allotment may be high, depending on growth stage and activity level. Type 2 diabetes may require oral antidiabetic drugs to stimulate endogenous insulin production, increase insulin sensitivity at the cellular level, and suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis. Five types of drugs have been used to treat diabetes. Sulfonylureas stimulate pancreatic insulin release, increase tissue sensitivity to insulin, and require insulin’s presence to work. Meglitinides cause immediate, brief release of insulin and are taken immediately before meals. Biguanides decrease hepatic glucose production and increase tissue sensitivity to insulin. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors slow the breakdown of glucose and decrease postprandial glucose peaks. The thiazolidinediones enhance the action of insulin; however, insulin must be present for them to work. These drugs also reduce insulin resistance by decreasing hepatic glucose production and increasing glucose uptake. They have also been shown to lower blood pressure in diabetic hypertensive patients. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels may also be reduced. Treatment of long-term diabetic complications may include transplantation or dialysis for renal failure, photocoagulation for retinopathy, and vascular surgery for large-vessel disease. Meticulous blood glucose control is essential. Alert Any patient with a wound that has lasted more than 8 weeks and who has tried standard wound care and revascularization without improvement should consider hyperbaric oxygen therapy. This treatment may speed healing by allowing more oxygen to get to the wound and may therefore result in fewer amputations. Keeping glucose at near-normal levels for 5 years or more reduces both the onset and progression of retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. In type 2 diabetes, blood pressure control as well as smoking cessation reduces the onset and progression of complications, including cardiovascular disease.