Noma (from Greek numein: to devour) also known as cancrum oris or gangrenous stomatitis, is a gangrenous disease leading to tissue destruction of the face, especially the mouth and cheek


Noma causes sudden, rapidly worsening tissue destruction. The gums and lining of the cheeks become inflamed and develop ulcers. The ulcers develop a foul-smelling drainage, causing breath odor and an odor to the skin. The infection spreads to the skin, and the tissues in the lips and cheeks die. The process can eventually destroy the soft tissue and bone. Eventual destruction of the bones around the mouth cause deformity and loss of teeth Noma can also affect the genitals, spreading to the genital skin (this is sometimes called noma pudendi).


Exact etiology is not known, but noma is likely caused by bacterial infection, specifically by fusospirochetal organisms.[3] Risk factors include severe protein malnutrition (e.g. Kwashiorkor) and unsanitary conditions


The mucous membranes of the mouth develop ulcers, and rapid, painless tissue degeneration ensues, which can degrade tissues of the bones in the face.[4] In a condition sometimes called noma pudendi, noma can also cause tissue damage to the genitals.[3] The disease is associated with high morbidity and mortality[citation needed] and mainly affects children under the age of twelve in the poorest countries of Africa. Children in Asia and some countries of South America are also affected. Most children who get the disease are between the ages of two and six years old.[5] The WHO estimates that 500,000 people are affected, and that 100,000 new cases are reported each year.[citation needed


Known in antiquity to such physicians as Hippocrates and Galen, noma was once reported around the world, including Europe and the United States. With the improvement in hygiene and nutrition, noma has disappeared from industrialized countries since the 20th Century, except during World War II when it was endemic to Auschwitz and Belsen.[6] The disease and treatments were studied by Berthold Epstein, a Czech inmate physician directed to do so by Josef Mengele.[6] The progression of the disease can be halted with the use of antibiotics and improved nutrition; however, its physical effects are permanent and may require reconstructive plastic surgery to repair.[3] Despite the fact that more than 400,000 children are affected in Africa alone, there is only one noma hospital in all of Africa. Noma Children Hospital Sokoto is located in Nigeria and aside from the regular doctors, medical teams travel there to perform operations. Without plastic surgery, the children's faces cannot be restored.