The horseshoe kidney is the most common type of renal fusion anomaly. It consists of two distinct functioning kidneys on each side of the midline, connected at the lower poles by an isthmus of functioning renal parenchyma or fibrous tissue that crosses the midline of the body.
About one-third of children will have no symptoms. One-third of individuals with horseshoe kidney will have another anomaly or other complication involving the cardiovascular, nervous, or genitourinary system. Symptoms will vary depending upon which body system is involved. The symptoms of horseshoe kidney may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your child's physician for a diagnosis.
* renal ultrasound - a diagnostic imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves and a computer to create images of blood vessels, tissues, and organs. Ultrasounds are used to view internal organs as they function, and to assess blood flow through various vessels. * voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) - a specific x-ray that examines the urinary tract. A catheter (hollow tube) is placed in the urethra (tube that drains urine from the bladder to the outside of the body) and the bladder is filled with a liquid dye. X-ray images will be taken as the bladder fills and empties. The images will show if there is any reverse flow of urine into the ureters and kidneys. * intravenous pyelogram (IVP) - a diagnostic imaging technique which uses an x-ray to view the structures of the urinary tract. An intravenous contrast of dye is given so that the structures can be seen on film. An IVP also reveals the rate and path of urine flow through the urinary tract. * blood tests (to determine how well the kidneys may be functioning) * urine tests (including a culture)
* your child's age, overall health, and medical history * the extent of the disorder * your child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies * expectations for the course of the disorder * your opinion or preference