Glutaric acidemia type 1 (or "Glutaric Aciduria", "GA1", or "GAT1") is an inherited disorder in which the body is unable to break down completely the amino acids lysine, hydroxylysine and tryptophan. Excessive levels of their intermediate breakdown products (glutaric acid, glutaryl-CoA, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, glutaconic acid) can accumulate and cause damage to the brain (and also other organs), but particularly the basal ganglia, which are regions that help regulate movement. GA1 causes secondary carnitine deficiency, as glutaric acid, like other organic acids, is detoxified by carnitine. Mental retardation may also occur.
The severity of glutaric acidemia type 1 varies widely; some individuals are only mildly affected, while others have severe problems. GA1 can be defined as two clinical entities: GA1 before the encephalopathic crisis and GA1 after the encephalopathic crisis.
Like many other organic acidemias, GA1 causes carnitine depletion. Whole-blood carnitine can be raised by oral supplementation. However, this does not significantly change blood concentrations of glutarylcarnitine or esterified carnitine,  suggesting that oral supplementation is suboptimal in raising tissue levels of carnitine. In the field of clinical nutrition, researchers come to the same conclusion, that oral carnitine raises plasma levels but doesn't affect muscle carnitine, where most of it is stored and used. * In contrast, regular intravenous infusions of carnitine caused distinct clinical improvements : "decreased frequency of decompensations, improved growth, improved muscle strength and decreased reliance on medical foods with liberalization of protein intake."  * Choline increases carnitine uptake and retention. Choline supplements are inexpensive, safe (probably even in all children requiring anticholinergics) and can provide spectacular evidence of the suboptimal efficiency of carnitine supplementation by increasing exercise tolerance, truncal tone and general well-being.