A heart malformation that is present at birth. The mitral valve is narrower than normal which affects blood flow between the upper and lower chambers on the left side of the heart. It usually occurs in conjunction with other malformations
* Pulmonary hypertension * Cough * Fatigue * Breathing problems * Swollen feet * Asymptomatic * Low level of blood oxygenation * Palpitations * Coughing up blood
The etiology of congenital MS remains unknown. However, prevalence of MS in offspring of family members (especially the mother) with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is increased.
Asymptomatic patients with mild mitral stenosis (MS) require no significant therapy. They should undergo yearly follow-up care with physical examination, chest radiography, and ECG with echocardiography as indicated by this assessment. These patients may remain stable for decades before MS progresses and the patient requires surgical intervention.