Cleft lip and palate - malrotation - cardiopathy: A very rare syndrome characterized by heart defects, malrotated intestines and various facial anomalies.
* Congenital heart defect * Intestinal malrotation * Cleft lip * Cleft palate * Characteristic facial features
The act of swallowing is divided into the following 4 discrete phases: oral preparatory, oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal. * The oral preparatory phase begins when foods and liquids are placed into the mouth, mixed with saliva, and formed into a bolus. * The oral phase consists of moving the bolus into the pharynx, triggering the reflex swallow, which is the major component of the pharyngeal phase. * During the pharyngeal phase, the larynx elevates and closes at the level of the epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, and true and false vocal cords. Normally, the laryngeal reflex during the pharyngeal phase of swallowing acts as a protective mechanism against direct or indirect aspiration. * The esophageal phase is initiated when the bolus passes through the relaxed cricopharyngeal muscle and enters the esophagus.