A chondrosarcoma is a type of cancer of the bone. Chondrosarcoma is a cartilage-based tumor and is in a category of cancers called sarcomas. About 25% of primary bone cancers (meaning those which start in the bone) are chondrosarcomas. This disease can affect people or animals of any age, although it is more common among older people than among children.


The cause is unknown. Patients may have a history of enchondroma or osteochondroma.


Like all other bone tumors and disease processes, diagnosis is made primarily by imaging. There are no blood tests to determine a diagnosis of chondrosarcoma. The most characteristic imaging findings are on CT, where detection of a chondroid matrix is present.


Prognosis depends on how early the cancer is discovered and treated. For the least aggressive grade, about 90% of patients survive more than five years after diagnosis. For the most aggressive grade, more than a quarter of patients live more than five years.


Treatment depends on the location of the disease and the aggressiveness of the tumors . Because chondrosarcomas are rare, they are treated at specialist hospitals with Sarcoma Centers. Surgery is the main form of treatment for chondrosarcoma. Musculoskeletal tumor specialists or orthopedic oncologists are usually chosen to treat chondrosarcoma, unless it is located in the skull, spine, or chest cavity, in which case, a neurosurgeon or thoracic surgeon experienced with sarcomas is chosen.