The B-cell lymphomas are types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma affecting B cells. It develops more frequently in immunocompromised individuals (such as those with AIDS.)
the first sign of the condition is a painless swelling in the neck, armpit or groin, caused by enlarged lymph nodes. Sometimes more than one group of nodes is affected. The lymphoma may spread to various organs in the body, such as the liver, lungs or the bones. Some people experience a loss of appetite and tiredness.
Most cases of follicular lymphoma, especially those rich in small-cleaved cells, have a t(14;18) gene translocation. This results in a rearranged and constitutively over-expressed gene called BCL-2. The BCL-2 gene tells the body to produce an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks programmed cell death (apoptosis).
So, B-cell lymphomas usually have genetic origins, though they are also linked to environmental factors, immunodeficiency, viruses, and connective tissue disorders.
The major risk factors for NHL include
- Immune deficiencies: These deficiencies can be genetic, drug-induced, linked to organ transplants, caused by chemical exposure, or be the result of other diseases such as HIV/AIDS.
- Autoimmune diseases: The immune system constantly attacks a certain part of the body.
- Chronic infections: These cause the immune system to generate new lymphocytes at a high rate, thereby increasing the risk of cancerous mutation.
The physical examination of a patient with an advanced high-grade lymphoma may reveal high fever, tachycardia, and respiratory distress. However, the physical examination more typically reveals pallor (suggesting anemia) or purpura, petechiae, or ecchymoses (suggesting thrombocytopenia). Examination should include palpation of all lymph node–bearing areas as well as assessment of hepatomegaly and splenomegaly.
In general, with modern treatment of patients with NHL, the overall survival rate at 5 years is approximately 50-60%. Thirty percent of patients with aggressive NHL can be cured. Most relapses occur in the first 2 years after therapy. The risk of late relapse is higher in patients with a divergent histology of both indolent and aggressive disease.
Treatment for B-Cell Lymphomas differs based on the type of cancer and the staging. It also depends on how fast the cancer is growing and the patient’s age and medical history. A medical oncologist, hematologist, or radiation oncologist will treat the patient with the most aggressive and successful treatment that his or her body can handle.
- radiation therapy
- and vaccine therapy
Cancer Patients have more options through clinical studies