Autoimmune oophoritis is an autoimmune inflammation of ovaries resulting in their destruction, atrophy, and fibrosis with a loss of fertility and ovary hormonal production. These changes stop the ovaries from working normally.
- Primary amenorrhea (menstruation has never occurred)
- Secondary amenorrhea (menstruation appeared at puberty but subsequently stopped)
- Sex hormone deficiency
- Lower abdominal pain
- Vaginal discharge
- Irregular bleeding or absent menstrual period (amenorrhea)
- Symptoms related to ovarian cysts such as abdominal cramping, bloating, nausea and vomiting.
Autoimmune oophoritis may occur as part of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I and type II but has also been associated with lupus, pernicious anemia, myasthenia gravis and other autoimmune conditions. The underlying cause of autoimmune oophoritis is unknown.
Diagnosis involves a special blood test which looks for anti-steroid or anti-ovarian antibodies, a pelvic ultrasound to look for enlarged cystic ovaries and tests to rule out other possible causes of POI. Management of autoimmune oophoritis involves emotional support, possible estrogen replacement therapy and management of other autoimmune conditions.
No immunosuppressive has been proven safe and effective by prospective randomized placebo-controlled study. There are few reports on a successful ovulation-inducing treatment with high dosages of corticosteroids.