The Nosology and Etiology of Leukodystrophies of Unknown Causes

Brief Title

The Nosology and Etiology of Leukodystrophies of Unknown Causes

Official Title

Leukodystrophies of Unknown Cause

Brief Summary

      Background:

      - A leukodystrophy is a disease affecting the white matter of the brain. The white matter
      conducts electricity from one part of the brain to the other. If the insulation, or myelin,
      is damaged, the brain s electrical pathways will not work properly. Researchers are trying to
      identify what causes leukodystrophy.

      Objectives:

        -  To collect detailed clinical characterizations, including histories, physical
           examinations, biochemical tests, genetic studies, and neurophysiologic and neuroimaging
           studies in patients with unclassified leukodystrophies to comprehensively characterize
           such patients and obtain comparative clinical profiles.

        -  To collect detailed clinical characterizations, including histories, physical
           examinations, biochemical tests, genomic and proteomic tissue, and neurophysiologic and
           neuroimaging studies in patients with known leukodystrophies to investigate the
           underlying pathogenesis of these disorders.

        -  To better understand leukodystrophies of unknown cause and to identify the part of the
           DNA of the patient with leukodystrophy that is causing the problem.

      Eligibility:

        -  Any individual with a known or suspected leukodystrophy is eligible to participate in
           this protocol, including

             -  Patients with white matter disease that is unclassified or of unknown cause,
                including but not limited to leukoencephalopathies with calcifications,
                leukoencephalopathies with cysts, leukoencephalopathies with hypomyelination, and
                leukoencephalopathies with brainstem involvement.

             -  Parents or siblings of these subjects.

        -  Exclusion criteria include patients too ill to travel to the Clinical Center and
           patients for whom the leukoencephalopathy is felt to be secondary to an acquired cause
           (for example, traumatic or infectious).

      Design:

        -  Patients will be seen either as an inpatient or outpatient depending on the tests that
           are planned. Patients may need to stay at the Clinical Center for 3 to 5 days.

        -  The following tests will be conducted as part of standard clinical care:

             -  Physical and neurological examinations, including blood and urine tests.

             -  Magnetic resonance based studies to produce a picture of the patient s brain (under
                general anesthesia).

             -  Spinal tap to measure chemicals in the spinal fluid (under general anesthesia in
                young children).

             -  Nerve biopsy, if the peripheral nerves are affected, or muscle biopsy, if the cells
                called the mitochondria or the muscles are involved (both under general
                anesthesia).

        -  The following studies may be performed as part of participation in the research:

             -  Blood, urine, spinal fluid, or muscle to understand the proteins, DNA, and
                molecules in these tissues.

             -  Skin biopsy to grow (in culture) skin cells and to analyze the skin
                microscopically.

             -  DNA studies to find new genes responsible for leukodystrophies and to better
                understand these diseases.

        -  Participation should be based on an interest to help further the research on
           leukodystrophies. Specific information about a patient s present or future health risks
           may not be gained.
    

Detailed Description

      Genetic white matter disorders (leukodystrophies) are estimated to have an incidence of
      1:5000 live births. As many as 50% of patients with white matter disease remain undiagnosed
      after conventional neuroimaging, biochemical and genetic testing, and therefore have
      unclassified leukodystrophies. Moreover, the mechanisms of disease in many leukodystrophies
      of known cause are very poorly understood: many are systemic abnormalities that manifest only
      in white matter. The purpose of this study is to: (a) define novel homogeneous groups of
      patients with leukodystrophy and work toward finding the cause of these disorders and (b)
      establish disease mechanisms in selected classified leukodystrophies. In order to achieve
      these goals, patients with leukodystrophy will be analyzed by clinical, neurophysiological,
      biochemical and genetic means. For goal (a), patients would have been diagnosed as having an
      unclassified leukodystrophy or no known cause of their leukodystrophy at outside centers. At
      the Clinical Center, such patients will undergo a series of neuropsychological, blood, urine,
      spinal fluid, radiological, and peripheral tissue pathological tests. Some of these tests
      will be part of a standard battery while others will be tailored to individual patients. For
      goal (b), selected leukodystrophies with a defined genetic cause will be selected for further
      mechanistic study, using clinical and laboratory tools to establish increased understanding
      of the underlying pathophysiology. It is hoped that the present study will help clarify the
      nosology of the leukodystrophies and significantly advance our understanding of the
      pathogenesis of these diseases.
    


Study Type

Observational




Condition

Leukodystrophy



Publications

* Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by National Clinical Trials Identifier (NCT ID) in Medline.

Recruitment Information



Estimated Enrollment

76

Start Date

April 24, 2009

Completion Date

August 1, 2018


Eligibility Criteria

        -  INCLUSION CRITERIA:

          -  Patients with white matter disease that is unclassified or of unknown cause,
             including, but not limited to leukoencephalopathies with calcifications,
             leukoencephalopathies with cysts, leukoencephalopathies with hypomyelination and
             leukoencephalopathies with brainstem involvement.

          -  Parents or siblings of these subjects

        EXCLUSION CRITERIA:

          -  Patients meeting above criteria but too ill to travel to the clinical center. In that
             case, consideration will be given to enrolling them for the collection of medical
             records and samples only.

          -  Patients meeting above criteria, but where the leukoencephalopathy is felt to be
             secondary to an acquired cause, for example traumatic or infectious.
      

Gender

All

Ages

1 Month - 99 Years

Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Contacts

William A Gahl, M.D., , 

Location Countries

United States

Location Countries

United States

Administrative Informations


NCT ID

NCT00889174

Organization ID

090128

Secondary IDs

09-HG-0128

Responsible Party

Sponsor

Study Sponsor

National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)


Study Sponsor

William A Gahl, M.D., Principal Investigator, National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)


Verification Date

August 1, 2018