Incentive Spirometry and Upper Abdominal Laparoscopic Surgery

Brief Title

Incentive Spirometry and Upper Abdominal Laparoscopic Surgery

Official Title

Compare the Effects of Volume-oriented Versus Flow-oriented Incentive Spirometry on Pulmonary Function and Functional Capacity in Patients of Upper Abdominal Laparoscopic Surgery

Brief Summary

      To compare the effects of volume-oriented versus flow-oriented incentive spirometry on
      pulmonary function tests and functional capacity in patients of upper abdominal laparoscopic
      surgery. Previous studies were designed to target only spirometer without focusing on its
      different types and their effects. This study covers the research gap and therefore is
      designed to observe effects of different types of spirometer on pulmonary function of
      patients undergoing upper abdominal laparoscopic surgery.

Detailed Description

      The volume oriented incentive spirometer enables the patient to inhale air through a
      mouthpiece and corrugated tubing which is attached to a plastic bellows. The volume of air
      displaced is indicated on a scale located on the device enclosure. After the patient has
      achieved the maximum volume, the individual is instructed to hold this volume constant for 3
      to 5 seconds.

      Studies suggest a physiologically significant difference in the effect of the flow- and
      volume-oriented incentive spirometer. Flow-oriented devices enforce more work of breathing
      and increase muscular activity of the upper chest. Volume-oriented devices enforce less work
      of breathing and improve diaphragmatic activity.

      Research was carried out a study on two experimental groups of patients in order to evaluate
      the effects of aerobic exercise training and incentive spirometry in controlling pulmonary
      complications following laparoscopic cholecystectomy, results indicated a significant
      reduction in heart rate, Oxygen Saturation of hemoglobin (SaO2), and inspiratory capacity for
      both groups. The researchers concluded that aerobic exercise and incentive spirometry were
      beneficial in reducing the postoperative pulmonary complications after laparoscopic

      Another study observed the comparative study on the effect of preoperative and postoperative
      incentive spirometry on the pulmonary function of fifty patients who had undergone
      laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The authors concluded that pulmonary function is well-preserved
      with preoperative than postoperative incentive spirometry.

      Another study observed that the volume incentive spirometry resulted in early recovery of
      both pulmonary function and diaphragm movement in patients who undergone laparoscopic
      abdominal surgery.

Study Type


Primary Outcome

Functional Capacity




Volume-oriented incentive spirometry

Study Arms / Comparison Groups

 Volume-oriented incentive spirometry
Description:  Postoperative Volume oriented incentive spirometry 3 times a day


* Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by National Clinical Trials Identifier (NCT ID) in Medline.

Recruitment Information

Recruitment Status


Estimated Enrollment


Start Date

October 1, 2020

Completion Date

April 30, 2021

Primary Completion Date

April 30, 2021

Eligibility Criteria

        Inclusion Criteria:

          -  Patient with upper abdominal surgery (laparoscopy)

        Exclusion Criteria:

          -  Patients who had undergone open abdominal surgery and laparoscopic obstetrics and
             gynecological surgery.

          -  Patients with unstable hemodynamic parameters (arterial pressure<100 mmHg systolic and
             <60 mmHg for diastolic and mean arterial Pressure (MAP) <80mmHg.

          -  Patients with postoperative complications requiring mechanical ventilation.

          -  Uncooperative patients or patients unable to understand or to use the device properly

          -  Recent history of lower extremity fracture




25 Years - 65 Years

Accepts Healthy Volunteers



Abeer Fatima, MSPT-CPPT, 03324390125, [email protected]

Location Countries


Location Countries


Administrative Informations



Organization ID

Muhammad Shakir Khan

Responsible Party


Study Sponsor

Riphah International University

Study Sponsor

Abeer Fatima, MSPT-CPPT, Principal Investigator, Riphah International University

Verification Date

March 2021