Acute Abdomen in Kawasaki Disease

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Brief Title

Acute Abdomen in Kawasaki Disease

Official Title

Acute Abdomen in Kawasaki Disease: Case Reports

Brief Summary

      Clinical and histopathological description of three cases of Kawasaki disease with acute

Detailed Description

      CASE PRESENTATION Case 1 An 8 year-old male started 48 hrs prior to admission with abdominal
      pain in the right lower quadrant associated with vomiting and fever. The physical examination
      revealed discrete bilateral conjunctival hiperemia, right cervical adenomegaly, and severe
      abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant with a positive McBurney sign. Laboratory tests
      showed CBC: Hb 14.1 g/dl, WBC 13,800, NT 81%, LT 3%, Plt 383,000/μl. C-reactive protein 230.9
      mg/dl, BNP 106.4 pg/ml (0-99). Abdominal ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of appendicitis.
      A laparoscopic appendectomy was performed, and appendiceal distal enlargement with
      fibrinopurulent tissue was found. Twelve hours after surgery, the patient presented increased
      conjunctival hyperaemia, generalized rash as well as upper extremities edema and
      desquamation, meeting criteria for Kawasaki disease. Cardiological evaluation showed mild
      pericardial effusion (3mm), normal coronary arteries. Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG),
      aspirin and steroids were started with resolution of the fever, rash and the conjunctival

      Case 2. A 6-year-old male started 15 days prior to admission with fever. He presented hands
      and feet edema and a generalized exantema. He was diagnosed with scarlet fever. The patient
      presented conjunctival hyperemia and cheilitis. On day 15 the patient had severe abdominal
      pain (right lower quadrant), and was hospitalized with the diagnosis of appendicitis. An
      appendicetomy was performed and two perforations of the appendix were found. Appendicitis was
      found (Figure 1). The patient persisted with fever and desquamation of perineal area, fingers
      and toes were added to the clinical picture. Laboratories reported blood count: Hb 13 g/dl,
      WBC 47,700/mm3 neutrophils 95% bands 8% platelets 551,000/μl, C-reactive protein 19.7 mg/dl,
      ESR 53 mm/hr, hypoalbuminemia 2.2 g/dl. Diagnosis of KD was established and IVIG 2 g/kg and
      aspirin were administered. Echocardiogram was normal. Surgical wound culture was reported
      positive for Enterococcus faecium and Escherchia coli. Antibiotic therapy was administered
      for 14 days with good evolution.

      Case 3. A 5-year-old male patient, presented with a history of fever for 5 days diagnosed as
      bacterial tonsillitis and treated with antibiotics without resolution. On the fifth day the
      patient developed bilateral conjunctivitis, erythema on the lips, morbilliform exanthema in
      the anterior and posterior thorax and abdominal pain in mesogastrium and right lower
      cuadrant. His physical examination revealed non-purulent bilateral conjunctivitis, cracked
      lips, strawberry tongue, cervical lymphadenopathy of 0.5 x 1 cm, exanthema in thoracic and
      dorsal region, with significant erythema of palms and soles, without skin exfoliation. The
      patient presented with severe abdominal pain located in the right lower quadrant, with signs
      of peritoneal irritation. Abdominal ultrasound was performed and was suggestive of acute
      appendicitis. Laboratories reported blood count: Hb 14.1 g/dl, Hcto 40.5%, WBC 3400 /uL,
      neutrophils 3100/uL, lymphocytes 300 103/uL, platelets 41,000 103/uL; ferritin 1700 ng/ml,
      triglycerids 190 mg/dl, C-reactive protein 8 mg/dl, normal hepatic and renal function. A
      diagnosis of KD and acute appendicitis was made. Treatment was started with IVIG and aspirin.
      The boy was taken to diagnostic laparoscopy where periappendicular inflammation was found.
      The cecal appendix biopsy presented normal morphology up to the serous layer, with congestive
      vessels, interstitial edema, and mild inflammatory infiltrate with predominantly mononuclear
      cells within the lymphatic vessels (Figure 2). A final diagnosis of mild mononuclear
      periappendicitis was made. The patient had an uneventful evolution with resolution of the

Study Type


Primary Outcome

Kawasaki disease presenting with acute abdomen


Kawasaki Disease




* Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by National Clinical Trials Identifier (NCT ID) in Medline.

Recruitment Information

Recruitment Status


Estimated Enrollment


Start Date

April 14, 2016

Completion Date

February 15, 2019

Primary Completion Date

February 15, 2019

Eligibility Criteria

        Inclusion Criteria:

          -  Patients with Kawasaki disease.

          -  Acute abdomen requiring surgery.

        Exclusion Criteria:

          -  Patients with chronic gastrointestinal disease.

          -  Incomplete data on the charts.




1 Month - 18 Years

Accepts Healthy Volunteers



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Administrative Informations



Organization ID


Responsible Party


Study Sponsor

National Institute of Pediatrics, Mexico

Study Sponsor

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Verification Date

April 2019